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Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



PART I 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

BOSTON 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND NINETEEN 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assatfrasriis pflrfiorltoal Sbcietg 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



PART I 




BOSTON" 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND NINETEEN 



assaxjjusdts Jnrtimltural ^atut^ 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
FOR 1919. 



President. 
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston. 

Vice-Presidents . 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. 
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. 

Treasurer. 
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. 

Secretary. 
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* 

Trustees. 

THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston. 
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich. 
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston. 
WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Boston. 
CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newburyport. 
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston. 
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant. 
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton. 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston. 
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Wareham. 

Nominating Committee. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, South Lancaster. PETER FISHER, Ellis. 

ROBERT T. JACKSON, Peterborough, N.H. EDWIN S. WEBSTER, Boston. 

ERNEST H. WILSON, Jamaica Plain. 



* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be 
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



COMMITTEES FOR 1919 



Finance Committee 



WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD 

Membership Committee 

THOMAS ALLEN THOMAS ROLAND 

CHARLES W. MOSELEY RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL 

EDWIN S. WEBSTER 

Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions 

JAMES WHEELER, Chairman 
ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSON 

WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD 

Committee on Plants and Flowers 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman 

DOUGLAS ECCLESTON DONALD McKENZIE 

S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM 

Committee on Fruits 

EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman 

WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE 

JAMES METHVEN FRED A. SMITH 

Committee on Vegetables 

JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman 
EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST 

Committee on Gardens 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman 

JOHN S. AMES CHARLES SANDER 

WILLIAM NICHOLSON CHARLES II. TENNEY 

Committee on Library 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman 
ERNEST B. DANK \ \TIiAXIEL T. KIDDER 

Committee on Lectures and Publications 

FRED A. WILSON, Chairman 
THOMAS ALLEN JOHN K M. L. FARQUHAB 

Committee on Children's Gardens 

HENRY s. \n\Ms. Chairman 

DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. W. RODMAN ''KAHODV 

Miss MARGARET A K\ND JAMES WHEELER 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



1919. 



The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts 
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- 
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William 
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts 
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. 



Fred A. Wilson, Chairman 

Thomas Allen 

John K. M. L. Farquhar 



Committee on 

> Lectures and 

Publications. 



CONTENTS 



The Inaugural Meeting 9 

Horticultural Papers 

Varietal Adaptation of Culinary Vegetables to Local 

Conditions. By Will W. Tracy .... 17 

The Culture of Conifers. By A. H. Hill ... 23 

Home Garden Fruits. By M. G. Kains ... 45 

Gardening After the War. By Leonard Barron . . 55 

Protecting American Crop Plants against Alien Ene- 
mies. By Dr. B. T. Galloway .... 75 



THE INAUGURAL MEETING, JANUARY 11, 1919. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




1919, PART I. 



INAUGURAL MEETING. 

The Inaugural Meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society for the year 1919 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, 
on Saturday, January 11, at twelve o'clock, with President Sal ton- 
stall in the Chair. 

The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary and the 
record of the previous meeting was read and approved. 

Mr. Saltonstall remarked on the condition of the Society at the 
present time. He said that the Society was getting into a rut and 
that it should get out of the beaten track of the past and extend 
its influence over a wider field of activity for the advancement of 
the interest in horticulture. He said that he was confident that 
the new President would advance the work of the Society. 

He then introduced President William C. Endicott who delivered 
the following Inaugural Address: 

Inaugural Address of President Endicott. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society: 

On February 24, 1919, we celebrate our ninetieth birthday. A 
meeting of prominent horticulturists from Boston and its vicinity 
was held February 24, 1S29, with a view to forming a permanent 
organization. A Constitution and By-laws were adopted on March 
17, 1829, and officers of the organization were duly elected. An 

«.> 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Act to incorporate the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was 
approved June 12, 1829. 

On looking through that Act of Incorporation, I see that the 
Trustees are unable to lay and collect assessments on members of 
the Society in excess of two dollars per annum. An annual assess- 
ment of two dollars seems inadequate. I do not believe that there 
is a Society of our importance where the assessment is so small. 
Before long this Act of Incorporation should be amended in such a 
wav that it will read: " To lav and collect assessments on members 
in such sums as shall be decided from time to time by the Trustees." 

Since the foundation of the Society, the membership fee for life 
members has been thirty dollars, with the exception of a few of the 
earlier years, when it was twenty dollars ; and for annual members, 
an entrance fee of ten dollars and an annual payment of two dollars. 
The fee for life members might well be increased to fifty or even one 
hundred dollars, and for annual members an entrance fee of ten 
dollars as at present and the annual payment of new annual mem- 
bers of five dollars. Annual payments for annual members who 
have already joined the Society should not be changed. The 
Trustees, however, should be given full power to decide in future 
as to what fees are to be levied upon life and annual members. I 
doubt not that members of the Society would be willing to pay a 
larger assessment which would assist the Society financially and 
would enable the Trustees to extend their work. 

It seems almost unbelievable that our membership on December 
31, 1918, consisted of only 45 Honorary and Corresponding 
members, and of 985 life and annual members: 

Honorary members 3 

Corresponding members 42 45 

Life members 790 

Annual members 195 985 



These are all the people in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
we have been able to persuade to join our Society. During the last 
two years, Mr. Saltonstall, on behalf of the Trustees, made a 
vigorous campaign for new members. Lists were carefully pre- 



INAUGURAL MEETING 11 

pared with a view of reaching men and women throughout the 
Commonwealth who might be interested in our work. In 1917, 
83 new members were added, and in 1918, 24 new members were 
added to our lists. Owing to deaths, resignations, etc., we lose 
each year some 25 or 30 members. Our gain over losses during the 
past year was only six members: 

December 31, 1918 985 

December 31, 1917 979 

A Gain of 6 members. 

This small membership means one of two things; either that the 
people are indifferent to horticulture — which I cannot believe to 
be the case — or that the Society is not as well known throughout 
the Commonwealth as it should be. Our activities should be 
extended outside of Boston and its suburbs, so that the entire 
Commonwealth should feel that they can turn to us for information 
and instruction upon all subjects relating to horticulture. 

It must not be forgotten that the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society is a State Institution and not a local Boston society main- 
tained for the benefit only of Boston and its immediate vicinity. 
Our property is free from federal and state taxes. As the oldest 
and best known Horticultural Society in the new world, much 
is expected of it and its progress and influence is watched and its 
example followed far beyond the borders of the Commonwealth. 
Each member of the Society should do all he can to increase our 
membership by proposing at least one member. Our membership 
should run into the thousands. Mr. Saltonstall said in his inaugu- 
ral address last year, "Why, think of it, the list of Fellows in the 
Royal Horticultural Society of London in 1914 was 14,400." 

The By-laws also seem to me to be unsatisfactory. 1 think 
they hamper the Trustees by compelling them to arrange six or 
more exhibitions each year of flowers, fruits, plants, and vegetables. 
I am sorry that a new By-law recommended by the Trustees at 
the last annual meeting, relating to this, was defeated. 1 recom- 
mend that at the next, annual meeting this same By-law be amended 
and also that the By-law relating to the appropriation of money 
for the purpose of prizes and gratuities also be amended so that the 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Trustees should have full authority to decide how many exhibitions 
are to be held each year, and also to decide how much money is to 
be awarded in prizes. 

The action of the Trustees in eliminating money prizes during 
the past year was conservative and wise. As you undoubtedly 
know, the Society has twenty-one funds, the income of which 
(roughly speaking, $2500) is distributed in money prizes. If these 
prizes, even with the additions made thereto from our general 
funds, are awarded each year, the sums are comparatively small 
and can be of little financial assistance to exhibitors, many of 
whom come from long distances and find the expense of travel and 
transportation burdensome. The terms of four of these gifts to 
the Society compel the awarding of annual prizes. 

Unfortunately several of these funds are for objects which are 
now practically obsolete, thereby reducing the amount actually 
available for premiums by several hundred dollars. Some day 
your Trustees should apply to the Courts for permission to use the 
income of these funds for kindred purposes which, in the opinion 
of the Trustees, may be desirable and useful. 

During the past year, the Society has done its share in War 
Relief Work by giving the Red Cross the use of its building, and 
also the receipts of its exhibitions. 

As a war measure, the Society offered free practical demonstra- 
tions of the proper methods of vegetable growing. A plot of earth 
was brought into one of the halls, and a practical, competent 
gardener was engaged from May to August to give information on 
planting, transplanting, fertilizing, and other necessary subjects 
concerning the management of a successful vegetable garden. 
This was an innovation in the old methods of the Society. The 
results were very satisfactory, and I would suggest that something 
more in this line may well be considered in the immediate future, 
so that such demonstrations of horticultural work might be enlarged 
and extended to other parts of the Commonwealth. 

The most important horticultural event was the Spring Exhibi- 
tion, in March, which was a notable success, both horticulturally 
and financially. The proceeds of this exhibition, amounting to 
$4500, were donated to the Boston Metropolitan Chapter of the 
American Red Cross. At this exhibition, a Tea Garden was run 



INAUGURAL MEETING 13 

in addition, by the Red Cross, which brought in a goodly sum to the 
Chapter. 

The remainder of the exhibitions were far below the usual high 
standard of the Society. This result was doubtless due to pre- 
vailing war conditions, although the elimination of money prizes 
had something to do in diminishing the interest in the exhibitions, 
as, with many members of the Society, the plan was not popular, 
and the exhibitions consequently suffered. 

For many years, indeed since its foundation, the Society has 
chiefly confined its efforts to increase the knowledge and love of 
horticulture by numerous exhibitions; by occasional lectures — 
many of which have been published in its Transactions — and by 
the formation and support of a Library which contains one of the 
largest and best collections of books relating to horticulture and 
kindred subjects in the world, and which ought to be made great 
use of by our members. While the members do not use the Library 
as often as one would expect, it is much used by writers on horti- 
cultural subjects. To such writers, it has become a necessity to 
consult our Library, and men and women come from all parts of 
the country to do so. It may not be generally known, as it should 
be, that books can be borrowed from this Library for use in our 
homes. The Librarian has been asked to give greater publicity 
to the value of this great Library; to inform members how they 
can obtain books for their own use; and to issue monthly bulletins 
of the additions made to the Library, which should be sent to each 
member of the Society and to other horticultural societies in the 
State. It is hoped that when these facts are more generally known, 
the Library will in the future be of more use to the public than it 
has been in the past. 

In order to do our share in helping France, it would be well to 
consider the question whether we should not aid in replanting 
the districts which have been so frightfully devastated by tliis 
recent war. Other societies have done their share, such as the 
Royal Horticultural Society of London, the Horticultural Society 
of New York, and the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agri- 
culture. It would seem as if our Society should do it- share, even 
if done in a moderate Way, which, from our financial condition, 
must be the case unless we raise the money from our members. 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The Society, in common with the rest of the world, must now 
face new conditions. There is everywhere a demand in every 
profession for better education and greater efficiency. The 
Society will fall short in its duty to the Commonwealth if it fails 
to take a more active part than it has in the past in the horticultural 
education of our people. A closer affiliation than now exists 
between our Society, other horticultural societies, the granges 
and the garden clubs of the State could not fail to be beneficial. 

Among new conditions which make it desirable that we should be 
more active in extending the knowledge of horticulture, is the recent 
ruling of the Department of Agriculture of the United States, under 
which the importation of living plants from Japan is forbidden, 
and the importation of plants from Europe is either prohibited or 
so hedged around with troublesome restrictions that the plants 
which have been imported into this country for the last fifty years, 
in constantly increasing numbers, must now be raised here. To do 
this successfully, the country is not yet properly equipped. 
Nurserymen, florists, and gardeners of private estates require 
knowledge and experience to enable them to meet successfully 
these new conditions. Our Society should be in a position to 
furnish this knowledge. 

It would seem that this Society, with its large body of intelligent 
and public-spirited members, should be able to advise wisely as to 
Federal and State legislation proposed for the improvement of 
horticulture and agriculture. 

I shall ask your Trustees to authorize me to appoint one or more 
committees to carry out these suggestions. 

I am quite sure that the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
is not doing the work that it should, not only in this community, 
but in the State at large. It needs waking up and should have a 
broader vision than mere exhibitions. Exhibitions are important 
and should be held, but the question is a serious one. I certainly 
trust that the members will do all they can to extend our work in a 
vigorous and competent manner so that its power will be felt at all 
County Fairs, all flower exhibitions, and all garden exhibitions. 
We should keep in close touch with what is being done by the 
various Park Commissions all over the State, should advise them 
in regard to the planting of trees and shrubs, and should do our 



INAUGURAL MEETING 15 

work so well that we should not only, through our assistance and 
advice, improve conditions, but should make all men and women 
over the State feel that our Society is the proper one to turn to for 
advice upon all horticultural subjects. We should have experts 
ready at any and all times to render competent advice. 

Our Trustees and members must have the same end in view — 
to do what is best for the interests of the Society. A lack of agree- 
ment with the Trustees on the part of members is much to be de- 
plored. Whenever such a condition of things is manifest, the 
Society will always suffer in its work. Mutual confidence can alone 
bring about the best results. No society can accomplish its pur- 
poses satisfactorily without expanding and facing progress. Though 
no doubt the policy of the past has made the Society what it now 
is, it would be more than unwise to continue such a policy when it 
has served its time and generation. 

At the close of his address President Endicott took the Chair 
and called for the annual reports of the officers and chairmen of the 
various committees which were presented in the following order: 

Report of the Treasurer, Walter Hunnewell. 

Report of the Board of Trustees, by the Secretary. 

Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions, James 
Wheeler, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers, William 
Anderson, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, John L. Smith, Chair- 
man. 

Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens, Henry S. 
Adams, Chairman. 

Report of the Delegate to the State Board of Agriculture, Samuel 
J. Goddard. 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian. 

The various reports were separately accepted with thanks and 
referred to the Committee on Publications for record in the Trans- 
actions of the Society. 

On motion of Vice President Kidder it was voted to refer the 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

address of President Endicott to the Committee on Publications 
and also that the recommendations and suggestions contained 
therein be referred to the Board of Trustees for further considera- 
tion. 

Charles A. Ufford offered the following motion which was re- 
ferred to the Board of Trustees for consideration: 

First. — That the President and Directors consider the feasibility 
of making awards and prizes at the annual meeting. 

Second. — That the January meeting be held at 3 P. M. fol- 
lowed by a collation. 

Third. — That at the annual meeting in the P. M. special prizes 
and commendations be given to the amateur class and eliminate 
prize competition with those of the professional members. 

Fourth. — Members' excursions have more publicity. 

Other remarks were made by Messrs. Craig, Smith, and Horton 
suggesting that some plans be adopted for increasing the interest 
in these meetings of the Society. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



HORTICULTURAL PAPERS. 



VARIETAL ADAPTATION OF CULINARY VEGETABLES 
TO LOCAL CONDITIONS. 

By Will W. Tracy, Washington, D. C. 



Delivered before the Society, January 11, 1919. 



I am very glad of the opportunity to talk to you here in Horti- 
cultural Hall, on a subject in which I am much interested — The 
Adaptation of Plants which are Commonly Grown in Home Gardens 
to Local Conditions — and in doing so my mind goes back some 
sixty years when I, as a boy living at Andover, spent many an hour 
when I was supposed to be at school or studying my Latin and 
Greek, in tramping through the woods and fields, enjoying the 
beauty of wild plants and wondering at the size and vigorous growth 
of certain groups; and I put in a good many hours of hard work 
in trying to establish new and more accessible groups of the more 
pleasing strains. I failed in this so often that I came to the belief 
that even the wild uncultivated plants of the fields and woods 
often developed distinct varietal forms adapted to certain particu- 
lar soils and exposures. 

Since then my study and work for over fifty years have been de- 
voted to seed breeding and growing and I have carefully examined 
and watched the growth of thousands of samples of varieties of 
vegetables and flowers grown from the same original stock, but 
under differing climatic and soil conditions and selected by different 
people. I have inspected hundreds of crops grown for seed in differ- 
ent locations from Maine to California and thus have had abundant 
opportunity to notice differences in strains grown in this country 
or Europe from the same original stock but under different condi- 
tions of soil and climate, which had resulted in the development, 
without increasing or even careful selection, but simply as the result 

19 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of differing soil and climatic conditions, of very distinct strains, 
each adapted to certain cultural conditions or consumers' require- 
ments, and often as well worthy of being distinguished by distinct 
varietal name as those already found in seedsmen's catalogues. 

Through this experience the belief of my boyhood has become 
the conviction of my later years, that every individual seed carries 
the same sort of potentiality and limitation of development as an 
egg or a new born rabbit. When we hatch the hen's egg under a 
duck the chick will not take to the water though the duck and the 
rest of the brood do so and will leave it alone upon the shore. 
Nor can we, by putting a still blind young rabbit to nurse with a 
litter of pups, teach it to bark. 

Every seed is made up of a certain balanced sum of ancestral 
influences and fixed in character beyond the possibility of change 
by growth conditions, before it left the parent plant. There are 
often distinct differences in the varietal character of seeds from 
individual plants of the same breeding as well as in the yield of 
seeds in different locations. Seedsmen are quick to secure strains 
giving the largest yield of seed and have stock grown from them 
in the location giving the largest seed crop, with little attention 
to the yield and quality of usable vegetables. 

Although the varietal character of every seed is fixed at its 
maturity, it is sometimes modified by climatic and other condi- 
tions while it was developing, and in some cases such modifications 
are transmitted to succeeding generations, so it is sometimes the 
case, that local grown seed will give a different return from that 
matured under other conditions and not infrequently seed grown 
in one's own garden will give better returns than that grown 
elsewhere. 

Conditions may modify the size and health of the plant but 
cannot change its character any more than the mother duck and 
sister ducklings can induce the chick to swim, or the litter of pups 
teach the rabbit to bark; nor can the varietal character of the 
plant which may be grown from a seed be changed by cultural 
conditions, though we may secure its better development, and by 
carefully breeding from superlative individuals of a certain type 
gradually change its form and size, and a wise selection of the best 
plants is the foundation stone of all successful seed breeding. 



ADAPTATION OF CULINARY VEGETABLES 21 

The social conditions and ways of modern life have changed 
the general aims and practice of seed growing. Formerly the 
housewife looked each morning to her garden or called upon some 
nearby market gardener for her day's supply of vegetables, and 
table quality was of greater importance than appearance. Now, 
the cook orders what she may need from the gardener, or the 
market, and low cost and appearance are of the greatest importance. 
Then, the greatest interest was taken in the saving of seed from 
the best plants and the development or possession of a superior 
strain was a matter of family pride. Many of the best strains had 
been in the possession of certain families for many years. Now, 
both home and market gardeners look to the seedsmen for their 
supply, and yield and shipping quality and last but by no means 
least, the price at which it is offered determines the stock used. 

Different species and varieties and even individuals of both 
animals and plants differ greatly in the extent to which variety of 
form or habit of growth occurs naturally or can be secured by cul- 
tivation and breeding. It is hard to distinguish the individuals 
of a well-bred flock of sheep and practically impossible to do so 
with a flock of guinea fowls, while it is easy to distinguish each one 
of an equally well-bred herd of cattle. In the same way, selection 
and breeding have given us less than a dozen but slightly different 
varieties of parsnip compared with scores of distinct sorts of carrots 
and beets, differing in size, form, color, and adaptation to certain 
uses. 

You may ask what of the many varieties secured at Experiment 
Stations and by professional horticulturists? I can only reply 
that very generally such workers are so devoted to the study and 
demonstration of theories of heredity that they accomplish little 
in the way of developing superior strains of old sorts and still less 
in bringing them into general use by practical vegetable growers, 
chiefly, I think, because of the want of continuity of effort through 
many plant generations. 

Although the varietal character of a seed is fixed at maturity, its 
development may in some cases be modified by the climatic and 
other conditions in which it was matured, and it is often possible 
to secure local grown strains of seed which will give better returns 
when planted in that vicinity than can be secured from stock 
equally well grown elsewhere. 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

I think the greatest possible betterment in vegetable growing is 
through its greater varietal uniformity and adaptation to local 
conditions. I once asked the best cabbage grower I ever knew: 
" What would it be worth to you if every plant in the field was like 
those ten?" pointing to some not better than many others, but so 
near alike that they could not be readily distinguished, and he 
replied : " If I could grow fields of cabbage 95% of which were as 
good and as near alike as those, I would plant 500 acres a year until 
I had made enough to retire." 

I have been impressed with the uniformity of varietal character 
seen in some of the houses of lettuce in this vicinity and have 
been told that they were from home-grown and selected stock seed 
and I believe that w r as the most important feature of their success. 

Again, I think I can say without exaggeration, that in the 
aggregate, though varying somewhat in different vegetables, fully 
10% of the very best and most useful varieties I have ever known 
have never come into general use, or have disappeared and are no 
longer obtainable because, though heavy producers of market 
products or of superior quality, they were such poor seeders that 
seed could not be profitably handled by the seedsmen at the prices 
paid for most sorts. We think that the demand of gardeners for 
uniform prices for standard varieties, with cut rates in years of 
over-production, is one of the most unfortunate conditions in the 
trade and w T e hope that the high prices asked and paid last year 
for some species may lead to a change in this respect. 

One of the most common complaints about the quality of seed, 
particularly if it was obtained from a seedsman, is want of via- 
bility, but in my experience this is not a common fault in stocks of 
reputable seedsmen. Failure to germinate is often due to the way 
the seed is planted. Well educated people will treat a lot of seed 
in as unreasonable a way as it would be to set a half-bushel basket 
of eggs into an incubator and expect three weeks later to find a 
half-bushel of chicks. This is not an exaggeration, generally two 
or three often five to ten, and not unfrequently ten to fifty seeds 
are sown in the space necessary for the best development of a 
single seedling. Again seeds are often covered too deep. Every 
year I hear of lettuce that was planted an inch or more deep and 
its failure to make a crop charged to want of viability of the seed. 



ADAPTATION OF CULINARY VEGETABLES 23 

I believe that where a good-sized garden is available it is possible 
to grow seed that will give more satisfactory returns when planted 
in that location, than can be grown by equally good cultivation 
anywhere else, and that it is quite practical to grow in even a small 
garden seed of one or more sorts which will give most satisfactory 
returns and in most cases it is feasible for even small gardeners to 
grow one or more varieties and then arrange for an exchange with 
some other growers in the vicinity so as to secure a supply of the 
most important sorts. 

The home growing and saving of seed of garden vegetables is 
quite practical and by no means as difficult as is commonly sup- 
posed. The principal requisite is a wise choice of superlative 
plants and the thorough curing of the seed before storing. The 
way to accomplish this varies in different species. With peas and 
beans, selected plants should remain in place as long as possible 
without serious loss from shattering, then, while still damp from 
dew, should be gathered and stored where there is good circulation 
of air until the seed is perfectly dry, when it may be threshed out 
and stored in muslin bags. 

In saving seed of sweet corn, as early as the probable character of 
the grain can be determined, strip down the husks on one side 
sufficiently to enable you to make a selection ; turn back the husks 
and hold them in place by a rubber band. Mark the selected 
ears by covering them with a paper bag which will also save them 
from the sparrows. Allow the plants to stand in place until there 
is danger of a killing frost, then cut the stalks, store under shelter 
until thoroughly dry and save either on the ear or shelled, in paper 
bags. 

In saving seed of tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, melon and 
squash, selected fruits should be left on the vine as long as 
possible without their becoming so soft as to be disagreeable to 
handle, or being exposed to even a light frost. Then opened, the 
seed scraped out with as little of the pulp as possible, and allowed 
to sour and ferment for from one to four days, when the seed should 
be washed, using plenty of water and repeatedly pouring it off until 
seed is perfectly clean, when it should be spread out not over two 
grains deep until perfectly dry, then stored in muslin bags and kept 
in an airy place. 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Selected plants of lettuce should be allowed to stand in place until 
there is danger of serious loss from shattering, then each plant 
covered with a large inverted paper bag, the lower end tied about 
the plant so as to save the early matured seed which drops, and 
allow to stand until most of the seed is matured. The plants still 
enclosed in the sacks may be cut and stored in any dry airy 
place until thoroughly dry, when the seed may be winnowed clean 
and stored. 

Seeds of biennial plants like cabbage, beets, carrots, etc., are 
less easily grown and saved in the home garden than those matur- 
ing the first year, but it may in some cases be profitably done by 
planting the crop so late in the season that the plants will barely 
reach usable maturity before winter and then protect them from 
severe and repeated freezing and thawing by covering with earth 
and coarse litter, or by storing in a cool, moist cellar where they can 
be kept at a uniform temperature just above freezing, and uncover- 
ing or resetting the roots as early in the spring as they will be safe 
from severe freezing. The second season seed bearing plants 
should be treated as recommended for lettuce. 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS. 
By A. H. Hill, Dundee, III. 



Delivered before the Society, January 18, 1919. 



It is indeed a pleasure to be invited to appear before you for 
the discussion of so interesting a subject as The Culture of Conifers. 
It is a subject near to my heart, and my chosen life work, on the 
success of which, in a practical and commercial way, I depend for 
my daily bread; therefore, you will pardon me if, in the paper I am 
about to read, I seem to rely on plain nursery language, rather than 
technical phrases and descriptions. 

I wish to say that I am indebted to my father, D. Hill, for such 
knowledge of fundamentals and practice that I have been enabled 
to acquire through many pleasant years of association with him 
in the work of propagating conifers. 

In the treatment of this subject it is found that the operations 
are divided into four general divisions which will be taken up in the 
following order: 

1. Seedlings. 3. Grafts. 

2. Cuttings. 4. Layers and Divisions. 

1. Seedlings. 

In the growing of conifer seedlings, generally speaking, the first 
point of importance in mapping out plans for production on a com- 
mercial scale is to locate a reliable and unfailing source oi seed. 
It is easy enough to talk about producing a million Little conifer 
seedlings, but in order to make this possible there must be seed 
of good quality and quantity. At first thought, it would seem 
easy to secure the seed necessary, when one thinks of the native 
evergreen forests with their range covering the whole country. 

25 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

However, the problem is different from that which confronts the 
farmer when he wants wheat or agricultural seeds for the growing 
of his annual crops. But fortunately the procuring of tree seeds 
is now rendered less difficult because there are a number of excellent 
firms in America which specialize in tree seeds, among which I 
might mention, Conyers Fleu, Philadelphia; J. M. Thorburn, New 
York City; Otto Katzenstein & Co., Atlanta, Ga.; Thos. H. Lane, 
Dresher, Pa.; Barteldes' Seed Co., Denver, Colo.; and several 
others. 

It is a source of great satisfaction to know that The Department 
of Agriculture in Washington has a seed-testing laboratory in which 
germination and purity tests are made and the number of seeds 
per pound determined of all species collected. In addition to 
germination tests, the seed testing laboratory is conducting experi- 
ments to determine the relative merits of a number of methods of 
storing conifer seeds. 

Too much importance can not be laid on the necessity of obtain- 
ing the best and hardiest types, and this requires constant research, 
traveling, and experiments. While on the subject of seed supply, 
permit me to explain briefly some of the interesting points con- 
cerned therewith. To the grower who is desirous of continually 
improving the type and controlling his source of supply of seed, the 
first thing is to build up a list of local seed collectors in various 
parts of the country, and then educate these seed collectors to get 
what you want. It is not an easy task, I assure you. The ordinary 
woodman is not acquainted with the various varieties, and the 
differences between the Fir and Spruce mean but little to him. 
It requires a great deal of patience. You must be willing to pay 
for his mistakes; sometimes he collects the cones too early and the 
seed is worthless; another time he waits until the seed has fallen 
from the cones and the operation is a failure. 

We have had collectors ship several hundred pounds of Juniperus 
berries, and not one berry in the entire consignment contained a 
live germ. It requires two years for the berries of some of the 
Juniper varieties to develop into maturity. The ripe, matured 
berries are a deep purple in color, and usually located back among 
the foliage near the center of the tree, while the green, immature 
berries are out on the tips of the branches, and are the ones that the 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 27 

collector will naturally gather. It is a good plan to keep in touch 
with your collector throughout the entire year. Write to him 
often; ask him to send samples of the young cones, even though 
the samples are worthless and of no value; it helps to keep his 
interest up. 

Collecting the cones. It is found that there are three methods of 
collecting cones; from felled trees, from standing trees, and from 
the squirrel hoards. Where logging is going on, it is often possible 
to pick cones from the felled trees on the ground after the brush is 
piled. In collecting from standing trees it may or may not be 
necessary to climb. Cones can often be stripped from short- 
limbed trees by cone hooks fastened to poles or even picked off by 
hand. Squirrels' caches are often excellent places from which to 
get cones. Pine squirrels collect and store large quantities. The 
squirrels do not put by seed for winter only, but continue to collect 
as long as the supply lasts and the weather permits. It is not 
uncommon to find in a single one of their caches from eight to 
twelve bushels of good cones. These caches are located in hollow 
logs, springy places, and muck, as well as under bushes and felled 
tree tops. The squirrels do not confine their collecting to a few 
species, but appear to relish a large variety. Among the species of 
cones which are often obtained from the squirrels' hoard, are 
Douglas Fir, Engelmann Spruce, Blue Spruce, Ponderosa Pine, and 
White Pine. Usually, however, the cones of but one specie^ arc 
found in a single cache. 

Take White Pine, as an example. It grows naturally over the 
New England States. It is also scattered generally over Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, and portions of Canada. In certain years, 
the White Pine in Canada will bear a good crop of cones, while the 
cone crop elsewhere is a failure; it is therefore necessary to have a 
number of collectors in all sections where the desired conifers are 
growing. The conifers of the Rocky Mountains grow rather 
generally all over the range from New Mexico north, and the 
Pacific Coast produces trees well over the entire western slope. 

ds arc collected in quantity during the Beeding year, which 
occurs only two, three or more years apart. In most varieties of 
conifers it is therefore necessary to secure seed during the seeding 
year, to store until fresh seed tin available. Many of the 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

varieties lose their germinating power rapidly after they have been 
taken from the cones. However, this difficulty is overcome in 
various ways. Take, for instance, the Douglas Fir, from Colorado; 
if seed has been stored over for two years it will be necessary to 
plant double trie quantity of seed to give the necessary amount of 
seedlings per square foot. Sometimes the collectors extract the seed 
from the cones in the woods, others ship the cones just as they are 
gathered, and the nurseryman or seed dealer removes the seed from 
the cones. This is rather a simple operation in most varieties 
providing you have the proper equipment, which consists of trays 
and a room, steam heated, where the temperature can be forced 
and held for eight to ten hours at 140 degrees, the temperature 
necessary to force the cones of Pinus Banksiana to release the little 
seeds. 

Yield from the cones. The yield of seeds from the cones depends 
upon the quality of the cones, the thoroughness of drying and 
extracting, and the manner of cleaning. There is a great variation 
in the yield of seeds from a bushel of cones. The cones of any 
species fill better during a "seed year" than during "off years," 
so that in the former there is greater bulk, and especially greater 
weight of seed. 

Cutting test. The usual test for quality of conifer seed made by 
the propagator is what is known as the cutting test, which merely 
means counting one hundred seeds and cutting them with a sharp 
knife. This will determine the percentage of sound seed, but it 
will not tell their power to germinate. Many seeds will show a 
sound germ, which for some reason will not have the power to 
germinate. 

The result of extensive experiments with germinating tests has 
developed that most of the conifer seeds will respond to the treat- 
ment and show a sufficient germination in thirty days to determine 
the quality of the seed. Some varieties, however, with hard shells, 
like Pinus Cembra and Pinus Coulteri, require from one to two 
hundred days to determine their growing power. 

The treatment of seed. Now, after the nurseryman has secured 
his yearly requirements, in each and every variety of conifer seed, 
to take care of his annual planting, we have reached the point 
where it is necessary to give some thought to the treatment of 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 29 

seeds before planting. The method of sowing and more especially 
the treatment of seeds before sowing is of great importance. Gen- 
erally speaking, the practice of causing the various seeds to germi- 
nate before being sown will insure the successful culture of many 
varieties which, without treatment, are almost impossible to grow. 

Steeping, sweating, and stratifying are the various methods used 
to force the seeds to germinate. However, I will have this to say 
from my experience in the handling and treatment of conifer seeds, 
requiring treatment to force germination, I prefer the slow stratifi- 
cation treatment to the quicker methods of applying artificial heat, 
together with moisture, causing steeping and sweating to stimulate 
rapid germination. 

The usual method of stratifying seeds is to mix the seed with 
sand or soil, with a sufficient amount of moisture added to prevent 
drying. Store the seeds thus treated in a bin for a sufficient length 
of time to allow the germ to become well started. There is seldom 
danger of loss from seeds that have started growth in the stratifica- 
tion bin, in fact, the common practice with varieties of Oak acorns 
is to force a small tender root growth of several inches before the 
acorns are planted, the theory being that the seedlings develop a 
better fibrous root system when handled in this manner. 

Through the skilful handling of the seed before sowing it is possi- 
ble to produce maximum results with a minimum quantity of seed, 
which is the secret of the successful culture of nearly all varieties 
of conifers by experienced propagators. Many varieties of conifer 
seeds require a short period of treatment to prepare them properly 
for planting, while some varieties require a slow, careful treatment, 
covering a period of several months. Make frequent tests of the 
seed in the stratification bin; cut the seed lengthwise and examine 
carefully with a powerful glass. This will show you exactly what 
is taking place; if the germ is developing too rapidly, it may be 
necessary to remove some of the moisture from the mass and lower 
the temperature. The object is to have the seed at just the right 
point for germinating at the proper time for sowing. 

The Time for Sowing Conifer Seeds. For some varieties the besl 
results are obtained from sowing the seed in late autumn; others 
respond and give better germination when planted in the early 
spring. However, in spring planting the propagator must bear 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

in mind the fact that the little seedlings should be well above the 
ground before the hot sun of summer is ready to beat down upon 
them. 

The Best Type of Soil for Seed Beds. Every propagator has his 
own idea regarding the proper soil for the production of coniferous 
seedlings. However, a visit to the nurseries located throughout 
the United States and Europe will show that coniferous seedlings 
are being successfully grown upon almost every type of soil, from 
a pure sand to a heavy clay. There is just one point to bear in 
mind, and that is the fact that the soil must have good bottom 
drainage. It has always appeared to me that the treatment of the 
soil to put it in a proper condition for sowing was of as much import- 
ance as the type of soil itself. I want to emphasize the fact that 
the physical condition of the soil is of as much importance as the 
chemical composition. 

In preparing the area which has been set apart as ground suit- 
able for the production of coniferous seedlings it is necessary to 
have enough land to take care of an annual planting every year for 
five years. Under this system you will be in position to remove 
the seedlings clean from the beds at the end of the third year, thus 
leaving the area vacant for the application of fertilizer or the 
growth of a cover crop to have the soil in fine condition to receive 
the second planting of seed beds. A soil may be rich with all of 
the necessary chemical elements but what the grower demands is 
that the soil can be readily worked. Therefore, I say that the 
physical condition of the soil is of as much importance as the 
chemical composition. 

Windbreaks for Summer and Winter Protection. Plant ever- 
green windbreaks completely around the area selected for seed 
beds. Plant a single row of evergreens every 150 feet across the 
area, running parallel with the beds. These windbreaks temper 
the cold drying winds of winter and assist in maintaining a more 
uniform temperature over the enclosed area in the summer. These 
windbreaks should take the form of neat, well-grown hedges, six 
to twelve feet high. 

Preparing the Soil. To place the soil in the best possible condi- 
tion for the planting and growing of conifer seedlings one or more 
cover crops should be plowed into the soil. Cow-peas or Red 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 31 

Clover give very good results. The decayed vegetable matter 
keeps the soil from packing and furnishes plenty of food for the 
young seedlings. 

It is a good plan, in fact it is very necessary, that the area set 
aside for planting of the seed bed, be given thorough cultivation 
for at least one, or better, two years, before the sowing of the seeds 
takes place. Soil handled in this manner will be practically free 
from weed seeds, and this is a point of real importance in the pro- 
duction of conifers from seed; it is impossible to produce sturdy 
young seedlings and a crop of weeds on the same area. It is also a 
great deal cheaper to remove the weeds with a harrow and a two- 
horse team, a year or two in advance of planting, when you com- 
pare this cost with the expense of having the seed beds weeded 
clean by hand after the young seedlings have started to grow. Of 
course, there will be much hand-weeding necessary even when the 
soil has been given clean cultivation for the entire two years before 
planting. And right here I might add that it is mighty important 
in keeping the tender young seedlings free from weeds, that the 
work is begun just as soon as the little seedlings appear above the 
ground. Do not let the weeds get a start. Weeding, of course, 
is only a detail, but is an important detail, and I have come to the 
conclusion throughout my experience in producing conifers from 
seed, that it is only by giving the strictest attention to these seem- 
ingly unimportant details that we get the maximum results. It 
is seldom any one great calamity happens; it is usually a lack of 
attention to a number of small details that causes failure. 

The Size of the Seed Bed. The seed beds in most of the nurseries 
throughout Europe are three and a half feet wide by sixty-five 
feet long. I have never been able to find out why this size was 
uniformly adopted by the growers of Europe. I infer, therefore, 
that the size of the seed bed is of minor importance. However, 
it is necessary that you have a standard size for all beds to facili- 
tate the keeping of the necessary production records. I have 
therefore based my operations upon a standard bed four feet wide 
and one hundred seventy -six feet long. The four-foot width is 
made necessary from the fact that the standard lath used for mak- 
ing the rack shades comes in four-foot lengths. The length of the 
bed was determined from the fact that part of the labor, which is 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

the plowing over of all soil, is accomplished by horse power, which 
necessitates longer beds than would be necessary if only man labor 
was used. 

Making the Seed Beds. Three beds are made, end to end. If a 
bed of shorter dimensions were used it would mean lost motion 
and loss in area. I will explain the exact manner in which the bed 
is prepared ready for the sowing of the seed. One straight, deep 
furrow is plowed across the entire area, necessary to make three 
beds each 176 feet long. The labor required is two teams for the 
plowing and 15 men for the raking, five men per bed. As soon as 
the furrow is plowed the men rake the ground smooth and level. 
This raking takes place as fast as each single furrow is plowed. I 
find that it is much more satisfactory to rake each individual fur- 
row, as it is plowed, than to wait until the whole four-foot area has 
been plowed over and then attempt to rake it down smooth and 
level. After the beds have been raked and re-raked until each 
small lump of earth has been broken and leveled the surface 
should be as level as a table top and free from lumps of unbroken 
soil. 

Sowing the Seed. After first ascertaining the correct germina- 
tion percentage of the seed to be sown it will be necessary to decide 
how thick to sow it, reckoned on the basis of so many seeds to the 
square foot depending on the nature of the variety, and the length 
of time they are to be left in the seed beds. For instance, take 
some of the Piceas, with a maturity date of three years, and assum- 
ing they will reach an average height at that time of six to eight 
inches, one square foot of ground will accommodate about one 
hundred plants, and seed should be planted accordingly, or the 
seedlings thinned to that nfcmber while small. 

The seed is sown by two men, one on each side of the bed, each 
sower covers one half of the bed. After the seed has been sown 
it is rolled into the soil firmly with a wooden roller. This insures 
every seed coming into direct contact with the soil. The seed is 
now ready to be covered. The usual rule in planting conifer seed 
is to put the covering on twice the diameter of the seed. This 
operation we used to do by hand, using clear sand, the men taking 
it from pails and putting it on the beds. We now make use of a 
specially constructed machine, which is drawn from one end of the 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 



33 



bed to the other by horses, sprinkling the sand over evenly, cover- 
ing the seed the desired thickness. 

In Europe the surface of the seed beds is left rounding. I have 
found that the germination is greatly retarded along the edges of 
the bed when the surface is left rounded, therefore I use only the 
flat surface, due to the fact that the lath shades which are used for 
covering fit more closely and evenly over the surface when it is flat. 

Shade for the seedlings. After the seeds are sown, rolled, and the 
bed covered with sand, the lath shades are placed over the beds. 
These lath shades are four feet square and the laths are nailed to a 
two-inch cleat, leaving space enough between each lath to allow 
another lath to be laid without nailing; thus when the rack is 
lying flat on the ground with the loose lath filling the opening, it 
covers completely with a little wooden roof the newly planted seeds. 

It is important and necessary that these racks .be placed over the 
seeds as soon as planted. It is a strange fact, but nevertheless 
true, that germination takes place more rapidly and more evenly 
in total darkness beneath the rack than the same seed planted 
under the same conditions and allowed full light of the sun. This 
lath covering also acts as a roof to keep the pelting rains from dis- 
turbing the surface of the newly made beds. If all goes well, the 
seed of most conifers will start to germinate in the spring, in from 
one to three weeks. The little seedlings push through the soil, 
growing up toward the light. The lath shade is now raised to the 
height of one inch above the surface of the ground. It is left in 
this manner until all of the seedlings have grown high enough for 
their tops to touch the lath. The lath shades are then raised to a 
height of ten inches and placed on pegs driven into the ground. 
Most varieties of conifers now demand a little more sunlight. It 
is therefore necessary to go over the beds and remove the unnailed 
lath. The seedlings are now protected from the sun and driving 
rain by a four-foot rack shade, with the laths nailed one and a half 
inches apart. This gives the seedlings what is known as a shifting 
shade; the shade moves as the sun travels across the sky. 

To some perhaps, these details are rather uninteresting, but to 
the grower of young seedlings, who strives for maximum results, 
each and every one of these operations must be given careful con- 
sideration. 



:' 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Watering. The watering of the young evergreen seedlings is an 
essential operation, and any one considering the culture of conifers 
on a commercial basis must first arrange for plenty of water avail- 
able to all parts of the seed bed area. The water is not used as a 
means to force added growth to the seedlings; it is an insurance 
against prolonged and severe drought at a time when the seeds 
are germinating. Some seasons not a drop of water will be re- 
quired, the rains coming at just the right time to give the necessary 
moisture to induce the maximum germination. The next year's 
conditions may be just the reverse, and after the seed is planted 
and the time for germinating at hand if the weather is dry the 
seed will germinate poorly if not supplied with moisture at this time. 
Therefore it is necessary that the water be available when it is 
needed, otherwise the seed beds will show an uneven appearance. 

Thinning the seed beds. The plan followed is to plant the seed 
thick enough to be assured of a heavy stand; the theory is that if 
the young seedlings come too thick they must be thinned to the 
desired quantity upon a given area. However, if they do not come 
thick enough, the growth is seldom good, due to the fact that the 
ground is not shaded by the young seedlings and their growth is 
retarded. Therefore, be generous with your seed at planting time, 
knowing that if they are too thick they can be thinned, but if the 
stand is poor it never grows better. In fact, the little trees seem 
to disappear and at the end of the second year most of them have 
succumbed to the elements. It may be necessary throughout the 
long hot dry summer to water the bed ; if watering is necessary, it 
should be done in a thorough manner; soak the ground so that the 
water reaches down to the roots of the seedlings. It is best applied 
in the late afternoon or evening, in fact we usually water the 
seed beds during the night. This prevents the sun from burning 
the little seedlings while the foliage is wet. 

Winter protection. It is necessary in northern Illinois to give 
every seed bed a blanket or overcoat for winter. Leaves, rye, 
straw or wild hay are scattered lightly over the tops of the little 
seedlings and the rack shade let down on top to prevent the wind 
from blowing the covering away. There is danger of molding if 
the covering is placed on too thick. The covering must be removed 
as soon as the frost is gone in the spring. This covering is not to 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 35 

protect the seedlings from winter killing, because most varieties 
would stand severe freezing, it is to prevent them through the action 
of freezing and thawing from being heaved out of the soil. At the 
beginning of the growing season of the second year, all lath shades 
are removed from Pinus varieties, and Juniperus Virginiana, Piceas, 
and Abies are left with shade until the end of the second year. 

Diseases and insects. The common disease causing loss in the 
seed beds is the damping-off fungus. This is a most serious fungus 
disease, attacking the little new grown seedlings while they are in 
the baby foliage. It works on the roots and along the surface of 
the ground, causing the little seedlings to decay and die. The 
fungus works in patches, sometimes a few inches in diameter, 
killing every seedling affected. These patches may spread from a 
few inches to the entire bed. 

In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, we 
have carried on extensive experiments for several years to secure 
means of controlling this fungus, and bulletins are now available 
giving the results of these experiments with various methods of 
treatment which in many cases have proven wonderfully successful. 
I would suggest to all propagators of coniferous evergreen seedlings 
that they make a careful study of the Government formulas recom- 
mended for the control of damping-off fungus. The fungus blight- 
ing the Juniperus Virginiana in the seed beds has been so serious 
through the country that the successful growing of this variety was 
thought to be impossible. However, it has been found that the 
disease can be readily controlled through the use of lime sulphur 
or Bordeaux mixture sprays. Spray the young seedlings as soon 
as they are out of the ground, and keep them well saturated with 
the mixture throughout the entire growing season, remembering 
always that Bordeaux mixture is only a preventive measure and 
not a cure, and unless the work is thoroughly done it is just as well 
not to attempt it. 

Considerable losses in the seed beds have resulted from white 
grubs eating the tender roots. When this condition exists it i- 
impossible to take any action because the grubs are iu the ground 
and can not be reached with spray. The means of control is fall 
plowing of the laud set aside for the seed bed area. This plowing 
of the land in the fall disturbs the grubs and causes winter freezing. 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Another source of annoyance in fall planted seed beds is the field 
mice, not from the amount of seed which they consume, but due 
to the fact that they burrow around, cross and criss-cross, over the 
surface of the newly made beds, causing a condition that results in 
uneven germination in the spring of the year. This trouble can 
be easily averted by plowing all of the land surrounding the seed 
bed area. These little mice will not run very far across open 
plowed ground, while they will travel a great distance if given pro- 
tective covering of grass and weeds. 

Accurate Records. It is very important that accurate, complete 
and detailed records are kept covering all steps taken. This will 
show exactly what has been accomplished and the reasons for 
success or failure. Unless these records are kept, year after year, 
the grower is working in the dark. 

Summing up Growing of Conifer Seedlings. In summing up the 
points to keep in mind, the following stand out as the most 
important : 

(1st) Good seed. 

(2nd) Well-drained soil. 

(3rd) Proper amount of shade to prevent sun-burning. 

(4th) Plenty of water when the seed is germinating. 

(5th) Keep the beds free from weeds. 

(6th) Winter protection, to prevent heaving. 

(7th) Accurate records. 

It can be said, in all sincerity, that eternal vigilance and pains- 
taking attention to detail is the price of success in the growing of 
conifer seedlings. 

I now come to the second division of my subject, which treats 
on the growing of conifers from cuttings. 

II. Cuttings. 

(a) Greenhouse Cuttings. 

(b) Outdoor Frame Cuttings. 

Many of the conifers are reproduced by cuttings. This is neces- 
sary from the fact that seeds are not available and the garden 
varieties and hybrids seldom come true from seeds. 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 37 

Greenhouse. The greenhouse, more properly called the propa- 
gating house, should be a well planned, permanent structure with 
the heating pipes beneath the benches. Provision should be made 
for a supply of water and equipment necessary to furnish artificial 
light at night to permit the propagator to record the varying temper- 
ature and make other inspections both night and day so necessary 
to the successful production of conifers from cuttings. 

Supply of Sand. A good supply of sharp, clean sand is necessary 
for filling the flats in which the cuttings are rooted. The sand 
should be of fine texture to allow for firm packing in the flats after 
the cuttings are planted. It should be absolutely clean from all 
dirt and vegetable matter to prevent the growth of fungus. The 
test for good propagation sand is made by adding a handful of 
sand to a glass full of clear water. The sand should settle to the 
bottom of the glass without causing the slightest cloudiness in 
the water. 

Cutting the Wood. The usual time for cutting the wood for 
making into cuttings is in the autumn when the growth is well 
ripened. It is well to wait until several good sharp frosts assure 
you that the wood is in a perfect state of maturity. Small branches 
are cut, using only the strong, vigorous shoots from the sides near 
the top of the plant. If the variety is a strong grower each branch 
cut will produce, when properly divided, several desirable cuttings. 
Do not cut the wood when it is in a frozen condition. Place the 
clippings in a basket or bag as soon as they are cut, to prevent 
drying. 

Making the Cuttings. With nearly all varieties of conifers, in 
making of the cuttings, use only wood of the past summer's growth. 
It does not matter whether it is a leader or side branch, just so 
wood is firm and well matured. Remove all of the foliage from 
the sides of the cutting, leaving a small amount only on the top. 
Make the cuttings of a uniform length by cutting the bottom end 
of the stem with a light, sharp knife. Cuttings of uneven length 
must never be planted in the same flat because the smaller ones do 
not receive the same light and air as the cuttings of greater length 
and the small ones are smothered. 

Planting the Cuttings. The cuttings are now ready for planting. 
Some propagators fill the benches witli sand tor the planting of 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cuttings. I prefer a small flat, 24 inches long, 15 inches wide, and 
3| inches deep, made of light pine boards. If flats are used they 
can be removed from the house in the spring when the cuttings 
are rooted and placed in frames on the ground out of doors where 
the fresh air and sunlight stimulate a more healthy root action. 

In planting, each cutting is spaced J to J inch apart in the row, 
and space enough left between each row to permit the air and sun- 
light to penetrate through the foliage down to the surface of the 
sand for preventing the growth of fungus. A liberal supply of 
water is given the cuttings when planting in the flat is completed. 
The water settles the sand firmly around the newly planted cuttings 
and the flats are then placed on the greenhouse bench. 

Care of the Cuttings while Rooting. Give the cuttings a gentle 
bottom heat. Loss frequently results from lack of control of the 
bottom heat with newly planted cuttings. Further watering is 
not required until the sand in the flats shows dryness. Do not open 
the ventilators in the house until the cuttings are well rooted. 
Allow the full sunlight to fall upon the cuttings. Shade from the 
sun will not be needed until the late spring and early summer. 

The cutting of most conifers will develop a callus before the 
roots appear. Most of the Arbor Vitaes and Junipers begin the 
formation of a callus soon after planting, the callus completely 
covering the cut surface at the bottom of the cutting. Some 
varieties develop the tender young rootlets as soon as the callus 
has formed. Other varieties wait for months after callousing 
before the roots appear. While in some varieties, such as the 
Juniperus Virginiana forms, which are unusually difficult to propa- 
gate from cuttings, they will remain in a well calloused condition 
into the, second year before roots are formed. 

Care of the Cuttings when rooted. After the cuttings have com- 
pleted their rooting, which will be sometime in June, they may 
safely be given a good supply of fresh air daily and an even coating 
of whitewash sprayed over the top of the propagating house to 
prevent any danger of sun scalding the tender young top growth 
which has developed on the cuttings. 

The flats in which the cuttings are growing can now be removed 
from the house and placed directly on the ground in a partially 
shaded frame out of doors. The fresh air and sunlight stimulate 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 39 

good, healthy root action and reduce the danger of loss from de- 
caying roots, which always causes serious loss throughout the 
summer when cuttings are not given the most natural growing 
conditions. The cuttings must remain in the flats until the follow- 
ing spring when they are in a perfect condition for potting or plant- 
ing in beds. 

Outdoor Frame Cuttings. Some varieties of conifer cuttings are 
successfully rooted in frames out of doors during the midsummer 
and late summer season. The frames are built slightly below the 
surface of the ground. The soil is removed from inside the frame to 
allow for one foot of stable manure for supplying the required heat. 
The frame should be rightly constructed to prevent entering of air 
currents through any cracks or openings. The top of the board 
or concrete forming the sides of the frame must be level and smooth 
so that the glass sash covering fits perfectly. A light frame is built 
at the height of four feet above the top of each frame as a support 
for the muslin cloth used for shade. Fresh stable manure is firmly 
packed in the bottom of the frame and soaked with water. This 
will supply steady, even, bottom heat for the cuttings. The sand 
is now spread evenly in the frame to a depth of four inches and the 
frame is ready for cuttings. 

Soft Wood and Half Ripe Wood Cuttings. The cuttings are made 
from young wood in a partly ripened condition. Experience lias 
shown that cuttings made from side branches root equally as well 
as leading shoot under this method of propagation. The cuttings 
are planted in the sand and thoroughly watered, after which the 
close fitting glass sash is placed over the top of the frame and tin 1 
muslin shade placed over the supports to prevent any of the direct 
rays of sunlight from falling on the tops of the newly made cut tin 
Air is not admitted into the frame until the cuttings have started 
rooting. Some varieties root in three weeks while others require 
two months. 

All cuttings should be well rooted before the time for heavy 
freezing. The best treatment for cutting-, rooted in outdoor 
frames, is to pot them up in October and place in a cool greenhouse 
or heated frame over winter. There is always danger of heavy 1 
with conifer cuttings propagated in this manner if left in the frame- 
over winter. Only a limited variety o\' cuttings give the maximum 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY 

results when propagated in outdoor frames. The Biota forms root 
readily from this method of treatment. 

III. Grafting of Conifers. 

(a) Greenhouse Grafting, 
(b) Outdoor Grafting. 

The propagation of conifers by grafting in the greenhouse is 
without doubt the most interesting mode of culture practiced by 
the propagator, and good results are always obtained when the 
necessary operations are carefully and skilfully performed. 

In greenhouse grafting the work is carried on in the greenhouse 
throughout the winter and early spring. The reason why the 
propagation of conifers from greenhouse grafting is so uniformly 
successful is due to the fact that the operations are performed inside 
the greenhouse where all conditions are under control of the propa- 
gator. 

The grafting of conifers as means of propagation is only used with 
varieties which propagate poorly or not at all from seed or cuttings. 
Some varieties of Juniperus Virginiana, such as Juniperus Glauca, 
Juniperus Schotti, Juniperus Counarti, and Juniperus Elegantis- 
sima, together with most of the garden forms of Pines, Spruces, 
and Firs, form a list of the varieties grafted. 

The necessary equipment consists of a greenhouse with the 
benches built up on both sides to a height of twelve inches. Over 
the top of the bench a close fitting glass sash is placed. This gives 
a closed box or grafting bench, twelve inches deep, covered with 
glass sash on top. Heat is supplied from pipes beneath the benches. 

Understocks for Grafting. After the greenhouse with its benches 
has been properly arranged for taking care of the grafts, the next 
important detail is a supply of seedlings to pot for use as understocks 
in grafting. The required quantity of understocks grown in pots 
is necessary before any grafting can take place, and these seedlings 
used for understocks are usually potted several months in advance 
so they may become established in the pots, therefore plans must 
be made and stock secured in ample time. All Juniper varieties 
are commonly grafted on Red Cedar seedlings. For the Thuya 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 41 

forms the common American Arbor Vitae is used. The Norway 
Spruce is a congenial stock for all of the Spruces, while the Pines 
are grafted upon an understock which carries the same number of 
needles per bundle as the scion used for the graft. The young 
seedlings in pots should be placed in the grafting house several 
weeks before the time for grafting is at hand, to allow for root 
action, which is to supply the flow of sap necessary to stimulate 
healing. 

Making the Grafts. When the understock shows a good, healthy 
root growth the time for making the graft is at hand. The opera- 
tion consists in carefully fitting the cut edges of the scion to the cut 
edges of the bark of the understock and tying securely in place with 
strong light twine. Waxing of any kind is not necessary. 

The newly grafted plant is now laid away carefully in a partly 
inclined position in the grafting bench. The inclined position is 
necessary to permit the full light to fall upon the wound where the 
plant was cut in making the graft. This light hastens the healing 
process in the wound. The pots are imbedded in damp peat moss 
and the sash placed over the top of the bench. The damp moss 
prevents the pots from becoming dry, as watering is not permitted 
after the grafts have been placed inside the bench. The wound 
starts healing immediately and the cut edges of the bark on the 
scion and understock gradually become firmly united. The sash 
is removed and fresh air allowed to enter inside the grafting bench 
for a short time every day. The fresh air aids in disposing of the 
excess moisture which develops inside the bench. 

At the end of four weeks the scion is fairly well established upon 
the understock. The grafts are all gone over and a portion of the 
top foliage is removed from the understock to induce a greater flow 
of sap to the scion. The grafts are replaced in the grafting benches, 
where they remain another four weeks. At the end of that time 
the scion and stock have become perfectly united. The balance 
of the top of the understock is now removed and the young grafts 
are placed in an upright position, with the grafting bench open to 
give the grafts plenty of fresh air. The season is now well advanced 
toward the first of April and in another month the grafts can be 

removed from the pots and planted in a shaded bed of well pre- 
pared soil out of doors. 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Outdoor Grafting. I have never attempted to propagate coni- 
fers by grafting in the open air out of doors, therefore have no sug- 
gestions to offer. It is, however, a method of propagation prac- 
ticed extensively by the growers of France and said to give most 
satisfactory results. 

IV. Layers and Divisions. 

Conifers are sometimes propagated by layering and division. 
Propagation from layers is usually confined to the prostrate and 
creeping forms of Junipers and other dwarf or low growing forms 
of conifers. A portion of the branch is covered with soil and roots 
develop along the stems. The rooted stems are removed from the 
plant and planted in beds of prepared soil. The usual time 
required for rooting layers is one year and is an inexpensive and 
easy method for the propagation of some varieties. 

Division. Propagation of conifers by division is hardly worthy 
of consideration for production on a commercial scale and is seldom 
used by the modern propagator. 

V. Summing up and Conclusion. 

In concluding my paper, permit me to say a word in behalf of 
American propagators. Right here in America there is a loyal, 
brave band of growers who are entitled to your encourage- 
ment and support. They have struggled bravely on through years 
and years of adversity, with hardly any recognition whatever, 
always in the face of merciless competition from abroad. In a 
way, the spirit of their endeavors is likened to what Lincoln said 
of himself, " I will study and prepare myself and maybe my chance 
will come." 

There are over a hundred propagating firms in America, big 
and little, many of whom, had they been able to operate commer- 
cially, with a half-way fair chance at their own market, would have 
been world famous. I mention with the greatest admiration 
such names as Jackson Dawson, J. R. Trumpy, Josiah Hoopes, 
Robert Douglas, the Berckmans, the Farquhars, the Meehans, 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 43 

Robert George, E. Y. Teas, E. M. Sherman, Ellwanger & Barry, 
Thomas McBeth, F. M. Carr, who have supplied American horti- 
culture with traditions rich with accomplishment. I am not one 
of those who believe that the intelligence of American nurserymen 
is inferior to European growers. 

I was surprised recently when one of the editors of a horticul- 
tural paper said, "Where are we going to get the patience, skill, 
and experience to grow stocks in this country?" Astonishing, 
such a statement as this, showing a lamentable lack of confidence 
in American enterprise, especially in view of recent American 
accomplishments in every line of activity. 

We have only to look back to the horticultural achievements 
of thirty and forty years ago when the Parsons Nurseries at Flush- 
ing, New York, were supplying the growers of Europe with choice, 
hardy varieties of Conifers and Rhododendrons, which are to-day, 
in many cases, the sorts grown in Europe for export to America. 
Thirty years ago Robert Douglas of Illinois supplied the growers 
of Europe with a choice collection of American Conifers. 

The United States Department of Agriculture through the 
Forest Service has established in various parts of the West Govern- 
ment nurseries for supplying young trees for reforestation. Each 
nursery has an annual output of several million young seedlings 
for forest planting. Eight individual states maintain state nurser- 
ies for the growing of young trees to supply planting material for 
state controlled lands and distributon to property owners for 
forest planting. 

In recent years fruit tree seedlings to be used by American 
nurserymen for budding and grafting have been produced on an 
extensive scale by nurserymen in Kansas. Upwards to sixteen 
million young roses have been grown annually by Ohio nursery- 
men. There are fifteen commercial nurseries making a specialty 
of the propagation of young conifers from seeds, cuttings, and 
grafts. A good assortment of voting ornamental and flowering 
shrubs is being grown on a commercial scale by experienced propa- 
gating nurserymen through the Bast and ((Mitral YY. 

It is a matter of interest to many that the Federal Horticultural 
Board has recently promulgated a very valuable protective measure 
to secure tins country against depredations of European and 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Asiatic insect pests and diseases. "While there are some objectors 
at present, we believe that eventually everyone will realize the 
wisdom of this action. 

It is preposterous to think of endangering our extensive horti- 
cultural, agricultural, forestry, and nursery interests, worth 
hundreds of millions of dollars, for a few thousands spent each year 
on imported nursery stock. It was only through quick concerted 
action on the part of our Department of Agriculture that our 
American White Pine forests were saved from utter destruction, 
by reason of the White Pine Blister Rust which was imported on 
nursery stock from Europe. 

With all this energy being expended on the propagation of young 
stock, the American nurservmen are assured of a constant and 
increasing supply. There has already been established on the 
Pacific Coast an extensive plant with over one million dollars 
invested for the culture of Azaleas, Bulbs, Boxwoods, and other 
florists' forcing and decorative material which have heretofore 
been imported. I predict the next few years will see a number 
of decided changes with American growers producing the stocks 
required for American needs, and the money which was sent to 
Europe will stay in America to build up and develop horticulture 
in our own countrv. 



Discussion. 

Exceptions were taken by several of the horticulturists present 
to Mr. Hill's approval of Quarantine Order Xo. 37, recently issued 
by the Federal Horticultural Board, by which practically all 
foreign grown nursery stock is to be excluded from the United 
States. It was stated that a large majority of the nurserymen, 
seedsmen, and private growers were decidedly opposed to the 
drastic regulations of this ruling. 

Mr. Farquhar said that it was not practicable to produce in this 
country such plants as orchids, rhododendrons, azaleas, bay trees, 
boxwoods, and other species largely used by florists, and that the 
embargo placed upon them would seriously affect the business of 
manv horticultural interests. 



THE CULTURE OF CONIFERS 45 

Even if these plants could be grown here it would take years 
before they could be produced and few growers would be willing 
to invest the large capital required in their production with the 
uncertainty of the continuance of the proposed exclusion of foreign 
products. 



HOME GARDEN FRUITS. 
By M. G. Kains, Columbia University, New York. 



Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, January 25, 

1919. 



While the past five, and especially the last three, decades have 
seen more remarkable improvements in horticultural practices 
than did the previous five, for instance, the development of modern 
tillage, fertilizing, cover cropping, spraying, and rational pruning, 
which have made the fruit growing industries of to-day highly spe- 
cialized arts, perhaps the most significant development of all is the 
increased and steadily increasing public demand for fruit varieties 
of high quality. 

For this growth, particularly so far as apples are concerned, 
Oregon, Washington, Colorado and other Western orchardists 
doubtless deserve considerable credit; first, because they boldly 
nailed their colors to high standards of excellence, both as to 
variety and to character of specimen, and second, because they 
deliberately set about the education of the public with respect 
to such standards. In these two directions they have not only 
themselves benefited, but they have performed a service alike to 
the consuming public and to fruit growers in general. Fruit 
growers in other sections have been steadily falling into line and the 
markets of our larger cities are annually being more liberally 
supplied with high quality fruits. 

Where did these Western and other growers of choice fruit 
their standards? Did they adopt the caveat emptor (let the buyer 
beware) policy which so often tends to arouse the righteous ire 
of the long-suffering and hoodwinked public? Not at all. Did 
they go to the growers of Ben Davis apple, Kieiler pear, Elberta 
peach, Lombard plum, Lady Thompson strawberry, and other low 
quality varieties for their standards of flavor? No indeed! Doubt - 

4 7 



4> MASSACHUSETTS H0ETIC7 SOCIETY 

they are no more entitled to halos than are our Eastern growers 
for the honesty of their pack, because the cost of transportation 
prohibits their adoption of dishonest packing methods; they have 
been forced to pack honestly or go to the wall. But where did 
thev eet their standards of flavor? Certainlv not in the big com- 
mercial orchards of the middle West and the East, orchards of Gano, 
York Imperial, Baldwin, Rhode Island and other at best culinary 
varieties No; they ignored these plantations and went to sources 
which for them held vivid and desirable ideals, the fruit plantations 
of their boyhood. 

Those plantations were neither set out by specialists nor primarily 
for profit. Their main reasons for existence were that the family 
enjoyed good fruit and wanted a continuous succession and an 
abundant supply throughout the year. Though doubtless many 
of these plantations were larger than necessary to supply even the 
largest families of th< irplus was just so much to give 

away to less fortunate relatives and to neighbors or to sell in the 
local market. 

One of the most pleasing customs of those good old days, one 
that deserves to be revived today, owed its charm to the el- 
fruit grown in the family plantation. When vis Iropped in 
for the afternoon or the evening the cm fait thing was to have the 
company enjoy some home grown fruit before departing. This 
was not served in the modern sense, now too frequently employed, 
to indicate that the social session is at an end, but in the whole- 
souled spirit of hospitality in the extending of which both host and 
hostess could take a keener pleasure in serving a home grown 
product and feeling that the favorable comments upon it were 
more genuine than is possible when purchased provender is pro- 
vided. What would have happened if Ben Davis apple,, Kieffer 
pear, Elberta peach, or Lombard plum had been used instead of the 
choice varieties? Might not the guests have felt that as direct a 
hint was being given them as when in baronial times the cold 
shoulder of mutton was trotted out to apprise the guests that they 
had outlasted their welcome? But who would have planted or 
grown such inferior fruits with bore-bouncing intent? YNould it 
not have wasted valuable land and rime and also indicated a lack 
of resourcefulness on the part of host and hoste- 



HOME GARDEN FRUITS 49 

Upon no members of the family or of the district in those days 
was the influence of choice fruit so profound as upon the boys. 
Setting aside mothers' testimonies as biased we may perhaps accept 
the popular view that boys are voracious animals, but it is slander- 
ous to accuse them of having undiscriminating tastes, accepting 
all as grist that comes to their mills. If the confession of one of 
them, now grown up, be insisted upon he would be forced to admit 
that he could always find the choicest specimens of the choicest 
varieties not merely in his father's and his near, and more or less 
dear relatives' plantations, where he normally would be expected 
to be welcome by day, but in a very considerable range of territory 
and at hours when his elders had relegated their vigilance to less 
somnolent watchers, dogs, to be explicit, with which, however, he 
made it a ppint for obvious business reasons to be on terms of 
intimate friendliness. 

The Ontario village in which my boyhood was spent is typical of 
hundreds of that day from New England to Michigan and as far 
south as Maryland, if not of a much wider area. Practically every 
home had its garden and fruit plantation, which often consisted of 
an acre or more. Here I had unlimited range in five fruit planta- 
tions, my father's, my grandfather's and those of three uncles, 
and a more restricted range in many neighbors' gardens. Each of 
these had been planted to meet the personal taste of the family and 
to furnish a liberal supply of fruit throughout the whole year. 
Often the last of the apples would be taken from storage when the 
first strawberries were gathered. 

Again, since the smallest of these plantations was more than an 
acre set in the interplanted plan popular in those days, the aggre- 
gate was a large list of varieties. Like many another boy of my 
day, while still in my teens, I knew fifty or more varieties of apples, 
twenty-five or thirty of pears, ten or fifteen of peaches, grapes, and 
plums, six or eight of cherries and a goodly list of bush fruits 
and strawberries. This knowledge was fostered, supplemented and 
extended by studying varieties at the county fair where many of 
the hoys, as well as their fathers, made exhibits. 

While a reasonable proportion of the hoys in those days went 
direct from school into some branch of Farming and planted orchards 
more or less like the ones 1 have described, and while a few took up 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

commercial fruit growing, the majority went into other lines of 
business; but among these last are many, the influence of whose 
boyhood led them later in life to take up fruit growing either for 
business or for pleasure. So far as I have been able to discover, 
they have with remarkably few exceptions chosen the varieties with 
which they were familiar during boyhood, or other varieties of 
equally high quality. 

In those boyhood plantations fruits of low quality were con- 
spicuous by their absence. Our fathers thought that what was not 
good enough for them was not good enough for other people. They 
turned deaf ears to the arguments that such varieties are robust, 
prolific, have fine color, and that the lowering of quality will not 
be noticed by the public in general. They knew better perhaps 
than the present generation of commercial fruit growers that 
nothing so tends to develop an extensive demand as a really fine 
article. For, to quote a favorite proverb, "The remembrance of 
quality lives long after the price has been forgotten." The man 
who eats a poor or indifferent fruit will not be tempted soon to eat 
or buy again; whereas the man who eats a good one wants another 
specimen right away. Not until money making became the ruling 
passion in orcharding were low quality fruits planted more ex- 
tensively than for testing. 

Though Ben Davis apple and Elberta peach must bear much 
responsibility for curbing public appetites for apples and peaches 
respectively, it seems safe to declare that no one fruit variety has 
played such havoc with public taste as has the Kieffer pear. The 
train loads of this whited sepulchre of a fruit that for the past 
twenty years or more have flooded the large city markets have led 
the public to believe that pears in general are inferior fruits, fit 
only for canning, if that. Even the Bartlett has had its skirts 
soiled by the commercialism that prompts California growers to 
gather it too green and ship it to Eastern markets where its conse- 
quently flat flavor belies its fine color and thus begins what the 
Kieffer finishes, the suppression of the public appetite. Thus the 
rising generation has had little chance to learn the truth that the 
pear is one of our richest, most luscious and delectable of fruits. 

To be sure the reaction against such bar sinister influences has 
set in; men who have learned that the public is willing to eat really 



HOME GARDEN FRUITS 51 

fine pears have begun to risk the difficulties of pear culture and to 
plant the choicer varieties, especially those that reach the market 
after the California Bartlett season has passed. The rising genera- 
tion may therefore fare better than the present one. 

While this commercial growing of fine varieties speaks well for 
the prospective improvement of public taste, it is just as much to 
be desired that the family plantation should become as prominent 
as in days of yore. In such plantations should be at least some of 
the choice varieties too difficult to grow or too sparsely productive 
to be considered for commercial ventures. For they certainly 
minister to the esthetic admiration of color, form, fragrance, and 
flavor, to say nothing of the pleasure of achievement in their pro- 
duction. But they exercise a still more subtle and important 
influence : they maintain and pass on to the rising generation high 
standards of excellence toward which commercial fruit ventures 
should always strive. 

It seems necessary to criticize adversely much of the present day 
literature and many of the specialists of the agricultural colleges 
and experiment stations. The great majority of the writings on 
fruit growing within the past twenty-five or thirty years have too 
strongly emphasized commercial phases and given too little heed 
to the stigmatized "amateur" features of fruit growing as if these 
were of an inferior instead of a potentially superior order. Ama- 
teurs are frequently connoisseurs. The writers seem to hrve the 
dollar so close to their eyes that they see nothing else. As it atter 
of fact, the great authorities on fruit growing — Coxe, Pr nee, 
Barry, Thomas, Warder, Brinckle, Lyon, the two Downings, and the 
galaxy of New Englanders, Kenrick, Wilder, Hovey, and the 
Mannings, to name only a few — were all amateurs, yet what does 
not the American public and especially the fruit grower owe them? 

They made fruit growing popular, not only in their day but for 
ours. They undertook and with their own private capital com- 
pleted monumental works. Nowadays the Government and the 
individual states pay their successors and supply the funds to solve 
modern fruit problems. Therefore, it behooves these successors 
to make broad instead of narrow specialists of themselves so they 
may sympathize with and encourage amateur as well as commercial 
fruit growing in their respective regions; for among the amateurs 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

probably far more than among the commercial fruit growers are 
our authorities of the rising and future generations to be found. 
To determine the truth of this statement I suggest that my auditors 
examine the list of present day investigators, teachers, and writers 
on fruit growing to see how few are the sons of commercial, and 
how many of amateur fruit growers. The result I venture to say 
will be surprising. 

Let me hasten to say my audience is mistaken if it has concluded 
from any of my remarks that I advocate a return to the hit-or-miss 
methods of former days. I most certainly do not. I am a firm 
advocate of every method that makes for better fruit and more of 
it. What I have striven to emphasize is the importance of re- 
placing the now largely decrepit fruit plantations with new ones 
of the choicest varieties to be handled according to the best modern 
methods. By the establishment of such plantations the standards 
of excellence will continue to rise or at least be maintained. There- 
by we may confidently look for improvement in the general stand- 
ard of excellence ; for as the floor of a valley is raised by the descent 
of soil from the mountains, so must the refinement of taste be 
improved by the increased popularity of high quality fruits. Fruit 
growing should, and thereby can, be made to minister, perhaps as 
favorably as music, art, and literature, to the sensibilities of the 
family, the community, and the nation. Such environments as 
superior family fruit plantations afford seem to be the most favor- 
able for the training of future fruit lovers and specialists among 
the rising generation. 

In these days of government and state departments of agricul- 
ture, of agricultural colleges, and experiment stations, and of huge 
commercial fruit growing interests, amateur fruit growers are too 
prone to consider themselves as "merely amateurs" and therefore 
relegated to a less useful class than that of the scientists. From 
the spectacular standpoint they are doubtless correct, because 
they have neither institution nor title to push them, whether 
worthy or not, into prominence. Nevertheless, without the least 
intention to belittle the work of the scientists it must be said that 
the world owes an incalculable debt of gratitude, to say nothing of 
monetary considerations, to countless amateurs — printers, mer- 
chants, doctors, lawyers, lumbermen, millers, editors, factory 



HOME GARDEN FRUITS 53 

hands and last, but by no means least, nurserymen and farmers — 
who had no "college training" in agriculture, who in no sense 
considered themselves scientists, but who used what knowledge 
they had to solve pomological problems for the love of still better 
knowledge to give to the world. 

Perhaps the greatest service they have rendered is in the origina- 
tion of new varieties. In this work they were largely gropers 
because the laws of plant breeding a generation ago were far less 
understood than today. Through enhanced knowledge this same 
field of variety origination offers even more wonderful opportunities 
than in the past. While beyond the scope of this address, I am 
eager to point out that herein lies the greatest interest for the 
amateur — this matter of variety origination; for, just as in the 
past, the originator of new varieties may do his work in a back 
yard, as did Edward Staniford Rogers in his garden, of which 
Marshall P. Wilder wrote, " It is 150 years old; a cold matted soil, 
filled with old apple and pear trees, currant bushes, flax and every- 
thing mingled together. . .a close, hived up place in the city of 
Salem"; nowadays with increased knowledge of the laws of plant 
breeding we have far greater chances of making fortunate combina- 
tions of parents and of finding varieties superior to those now under 
cultivation than in bygone years. 

In support of this contention let it be remembered that Luther 
Burbank, himself a Massachusetts product, started his business 
life as a factory hand but became a grower of vegetables and seeds 
before he became a variety originator. Though the practical 
results of his work have been exploited, magnified, distorted, and 
even caricatured by the press, they doubtless compare favorably 
with those of other less conspicuous plant breeders; but his results, 
though great, seem to be of smaller consequence than his influence 
in awakening general interest in plant breeding. He has proved 
that plants unlike anything hitherto known can be originated, 
so his work has become an inspiration to countless amateurs who 
seek to follow in his footsteps or blaze new trails for themseh 
In this direction therefore lie the greatest reward-, not perhaps of 
money, but of interest and service in the growing of home garden 
fruits. 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR. 
By Leonard Barron, Garden City, New York. 



Delivered before the Society, February 1, 1919. 



Does anyone believe that the war time reaction on our garden- 
ing will be other than constructive? That is the problem before 
us. 

The war itself marks a convenient period from which we may 
review the past and measure the future. The general conditions 
to be considered may not have been entirely brought about by 
what was officially called the "existing emergency," but it has had 
the effect of drawing the threads together so that we have been 
able to realize the crystallizing into concerted action, and horti- 
culturally as in other affairs we shall be able to measure things as 
"before the war" and "after the war." 

Everybody, every man and woman of us, has as the uppermost 
question in mind at this time : What is going to happen to business 
now; particularly, what is going to happen to his or her own 
particular interest. When war broke upon us with its consequent 
cessation of ordinary interests we were shocked, startled; and the 
first feeling was an outlook into untold calamity. Our gardening 
stopped. As time went on things seemed to get worse and the 
climax was brought about by the various rulings of the War Indus- 
tries Board and the Fuel Administration; with the restricted 
supplies and the draft on labor the outlook was none too rosy. 
But things have changed, and with the coming of peace, there is a 
general feeling of optimism openly expressed in all industries, an 
optimism in which the horticulture of the country seems destined 
to share in its proportion. 

Gardening touches the life of the people in two phages, which we 
may call the essential and the non-essential. In the first < 
conies the whole question of the raising of food crops, fruit-, and 
vegetables. In the second, the more delightful refinements of 

55 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

artistic enjoyment in the development of parks, pleasure gardens, 
and other esthetic surroundings. 

Both these divisions react according to conditions of the wealth 
and welfare of the people. As men prosper, so do we find them 
enjoying more and more the delights of beauty and luxury in their 
surroundings. And so we may ask ourselves fairly, how do we as a 
people stand today? Are we richer or poorer? What are our 
resources, and how is our present condition likely to react on the 
horticultural interests.? The president of the National City Bank 
of New York in a recent magazine asks this same question in regard 
to the general reaction. He says: 

"Do you recall the gloomy predictions which many men made 
when the war broke out? They said that the wealth which had 
been accumulated would be swept away; that the world would be 
set back a hundred years; that the billions that would be spent 
would be pure waste; that we would exhaust our wealth, and have 
nothing to show for it but debts. Is it true that we have exhausted 
our wealth? I do not think so. 

" There are three kinds of wealth : first, there are natural resources 
— forests, minerals, and water power, and so on; second, there is 
wealth in the form of production and distribution agencies — 
factories, equipments, railways, ships, and so on; third, there is 
what is called consumable wealth in the form of goods on hand — 
such as food, clothing, and all the things we use in living. 

"Our natural resources have been more highly developed; new 
mines have been opened; food production has been stimulated; 
more land has been brought under cultivation. 

" Undoubtedly there is a balance on the credit side to the second 
class of wealth — factory buildings as equipment and so forth. 

" The pessimist lays emphasis on the depletion of the third kind 
of wealth. It is true that some stocks have been heavily drawn 
down, but this is only a temporary and not vital thing. It is not 
the amount of goods on hand that counts most, it is the ability to 
keep up a flow of goods. Our power of production is greater than 
ever before. We have increased our productive power in many of 
our old industries and have started some entirely new ones. It 
is the power to produce efficiently upon which emphasis should 
be laid." 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 57 

May we not learn a lesson from those remarks? 

It cannot be denied that impulses and tendencies born under 
the stress and strain of great national crises, or out of necessity, 
frequently perpetuate themselves because they are found to fill a 
void that, though existing before, was not realized because the 
situation could not be seen in proper perspective. 



Pre-War Conditions. 

Before the war home gardening, both as concerns vegetables and 
flowers, was spasmodic, intermittent, local. Indeed, it was con- 
fined largely to the fairly well-to-do members of the population; 
to those in whom the love of the beautiful was developed, and who 
had the wherewithal to satisfy any reasonable longings. War 
conditions changed matters, and particularly on this side of the 
Atlantic. Both in Canada and the United States a new interest 
suddenly burst into being. Where formerly the suburban lot 
dweller attended to his garden needs with more or less of an apology 
in public, today we find that the apology is offered rather by the 
man or woman who does not cultivate the soil. 

Times change and we change with them. It is no longer con- 
sidered the height of humor for the comic papers to picture Mr. 
Suburbanite living in Lonesomehurst, and carrying home the family 
vegetables from the city. 

The continually soaring prices of common necessities, — the 
high cost of living, — rendered necessary the tilling of mailable 
land quite apart from the more or less spectacular (if more or Less 
ineffective) bursts of enthusiasm that led people here and there to 
become " Potatriots " as it has been expressed, to demonstrate their 
patriotism "by wearing a potato on the front lawn." 

Yes, notwithstanding these misdirected efforts (and they were 
nothing but the faults of ignoranl enthusiasm), excellent results of 
national importance have attended the cultivation of suburban 
lots, ;md thousands of dollars worth of vegetables were last year 
raised on land that hitherto had remained unproductive. 

This year equally impressive totals are anticipated, ami though 

we may turn hack through the garden gate, back to the ways o\ 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

peace, we surely cannot lose entirely the momentum which has 
thus been gained; and wonder of wonders, the energy of the vast 
army of children has been given intelligent direction towards 
gardening. 

The reaction from war has been more fruitful in the development 
of children's gardening than all the organized school garden move- 
ment, and all the other spasmodic efforts of a generation before. 
School gardens and children's gardening have been given a direct 
incentive, a thing which they hitherto had lacked. The young 
generation, the trustees of posterity, are brought into close contact 
with the phenomena of nature, and let us hope, to look up, through 
nature, to nature's God. 

The incidental lessons thus received by hosts of people will 
surely stand as one of the triumphant credits in the larger world. 
Working in the garden with living things reacts in stimulating the 
moral and esthetic view of life. The direct lessons in cause and 
effect, planning, cooperation, and a realization that each individual 
can and must contribute to his own maintenance — is indeed the 
architect of his own fortune, — may likely enough have its foun- 
dation in the work of a child in the garden. 



Health and Outdoor Work. 

If there be any truth in the healthfulness of outdoor occupation 
then there must be an improvement of the national standard of 
health, something greatly to be desired since the war has revealed 
to us the alarming fact that only 60% of the manhood of the nation 
could qualify for military duty. With healthy bodies we get 
healthy minds. The healthy human individual is a national asset. 

Man power and woman power are essential to the nation. Wel- 
fare depends upon vigorous and enduring health of the individual. 
Gardening is a national asset, serving all these ends, because it 
gives outdoor occupation, productive occupation with recreation, 
education, and profit all at one time. Is there any other occupa- 
tion under the sun that can do all these? 

The general impetus that has been given to gardening during 
the last eighteen months has started a movement that cannot 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 59 

suddenly cease. The necessity for continued food production close 
at home is as great as ever, and the householder and his wife who 
have learned for the first time what fresh vegetables in abundance 
really mean will continue the interest they have begun. The 
beginners of last year are the veterans of this, their work will be 
less discursive, more direct in results and better planned to meet 
their individual needs. 

Conditions for the coming year will be more stable. Commercial 
growers have been able to measure, with some degree of exactness, 
the demands that will be made upon them in the production of 
staple crops to supply the nation's needs in contributing their share 
of the increased demand for export to the stricken nations of 
Europe. 

The many people who raised crops in their own gardens will 
continue to do so and the demand for fresh vegetables will be met 
largely by local supplies. The actual quantity produced F. O. B. 
the kitchen door is a great national asset. 



"War Garden" Results. 

The National War Garden Commission in a recent letter stands 
by its originally published estimates of last summer which places 
the value of food stuffs raised in emergency war gardens in 1918 
at the prodigious total of 8525,000,000. The number of individual 
plots according to the same authority is 5,250,000, an increase of 
51% over the previous year. And the dawn of peace does not 
change the food situation as it will probably be several years before 
the normal food reserves of the world can be restored. 

Surely with little indication of any material reduction in the 
immediate future of the present high cost of living an augmented 
interest in home gardening may be counted upon. At all events, 
the incentive for cultivating the suburban back yard and the vacant 
lot is urging on the home gardener with even greater insistence. 
And he has learned how. 

With the change in industrial conditions and a resumption of 
activity in building (which is already under way the numbers of 
small to moderate sized home gardens will be even greater than 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

before. The high wages that labor has enjoyed, and seems likely 
to enjoy for some time to come, means increased purchasing power 
of a greater number of people and in the ultimate a demand for 
higher standards of living with improved home surroundings. 

The newcomers into this class may be counted upon to fall in 
line with the established standard. Is it not reasonable to expect 
that thousands of people who have enjoyed the results of their 
labors, and have come to know what independence of the green- 
grocer means will never again willingly submit to the older condi- 
tions? It may be that one beneficial reaction of the war will be a 
new conception of the suburban home life. 

The change that is upon us will probably not occur in the great 
estates so much as in the average small holding; for there it is, 
indeed, that the awakening has come. The large estate has indeed 
suffered. Development of many private places has stopped. Not 
only has the withdrawal of man power interfered with their upkeep, 
but the demand of war time finance and a heavy income tax have 
curtailed the operations of their owners. 

The increase of country living that has been going on so rapidly 
for the past 25 years had prepared the ground, had laid the founda- 
tion for the favorable reception of the garden impetus. 

Woman as a New Factor. 

One nurseryman of my acquaintance, referring to his own busi- 
ness, points out that the individual owners have been, during that 
period, showing a greater and increasing interest in their home 
surroundings, and he says the biggest factor is the women. 
Twenty-five years ago there was only one lady who came to his 
nursery to look at new plants; now more than half the checks 
passing through his office are signed by the women. They are 
running country places, large and small, and they are doing it 
sometimes to the discomfiture of the old time gardener. 

The inauguration of the Women's Land Army is significant in this 
connection; in all the warring countries women have assumed their 
share of responsibility and labor. It is no small thing that the 
Women's Land Army of America stepped into the breach to supply 
labor for the farms, and did it successfully. 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 61 

It is difficult at this time to arrive at exact figures, for the Land 
Army work is so new; but it has been linked up with the Depart- 
ment of Labor and has become part of the United States Employ- 
ment Service system. 

The Women's Land Army of America was organized primarily 
for increasing food production during the war, meeting the farmers' 
needs by providing units or groups of women who live in separate 
houses with a chaperon-housekeeper or supervisor, and furnishing 
their own food and cooking. This patriotic organization of volun- 
teer workers came into existence in New York City in December, 
1917, and, from the beginning, has operated in cooperation with 
the U. S. Employment Service with a degree of success far beyond 
the utmost expectations of its creators and the country at large, as 
is shown by its reports to the Department of Labor at Washington. 

Wherever the Army members have operated they have left an 
enviable record, and many an estate manager, superintendent and 
farmer, skeptical at first as to the practicability of employing women 
to do men's work on the place, is now wholly convinced of their 
value in this field. 

According to available figures, as reported to the Department, 
ten thousand women worked in land camps last summer and, it is 
estimated, at least five thousand more have gone out in groups, or 
singly, to lend their assistance in saving crops that otherwise would 
have perished. Now it is significant that these women were drawn 
from the ranks of college girls, school teachers, seasonal workers 
out of employment, hitherto unused sources. They have taken 
hold of the hardest of tasks and accomplished results that it lias 
been popularly supposed only men could do. 

In the state of Illinois the Land Army established a training 
farm where girls and women passed through a period of intensive 
training prior to being sent out to work on farms. They are said 
to have learned quickly and to have accomplished in the period of 
their training much more than their instructors had considered 
possible, and the quality of their work after leaving the school is 
said to have completely won over the Illinois farmers and convinced 
them that in the women of the Land Army lies one solution of the 
labor troubles that had been perplexing them for years. 

Forty states now have Land Ann\ chairmen where 1 commit t< 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

are at work, and in twenty of these states active work has been 
done in placing women on the farms. In the eastern states, as 
well as in the far west, the Army has been particularly active and 
in several instances the women are credited with having, through 
their enthusiastic work, saved the crops of entire counties and 
thousands of dollars to the farmers that otherwise would have been 
lost, besides furnishing vast quantities of food to the world at a 
time when greatly needed. 

The Land Army has opened a new channel to thousands of 
women who view life from a new angle, especially with reference to 
its applications to outdoor pursuits, and what is more, they have 
gained in mental vision and in physical strength, in happiness as 
well as achievement, to a degree far in advance of their sanguine 
expectations. 

These women worked on about three thousand different places — 
farms and estates; fifteen thousand of them at an average wage of 
$2.00 a day for approximately two months each. As conditions 
again approach the normal are not these women destined to place 
their impress upon the new era of gardening? 



The Schools' and Children's Gardens. 

I have already referred casually to the work of the children. 
Perhaps some figures concerning the United States School Garden 
Army will also be suggestive of the possibilities of the times that 
are ahead of us. This organization which was established just a 
year ago, in the spring of 1918, was able to show 1,500,000 children 
in home or school gardens by the end of the season; 1,500,000 
garden lesson leaflets, manuals, and posters distributed; and a 
return, on a fair basis of estimation, of $15,000,000 in vegetables 
produced for home consumption, and a great quantity of them 
canned for winter use. These figures are official. 

A few typical cities will interest you. In Lexington, Kentucky, 
8,000 garden army children raised $100,000 worth of vegetables; 
Fresno, Cal., 3,100 children, $48,000 crop; Rochester, N. Y., 
3,200 children, $16,246 crop; Chattanooga, Tenn., 5,000 children, 
$62,171 crop; Richmond, Va., 1,597 children, $43,936 crop; 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 63 

Tacoma, Wash., 3,966 children, $191,425 crop (probably adult 
gardens are included in this figure); Cincinnati, Ohio, 11,000 
children, $38,000 crop; Seattle, Wash., 8,000 children, $60,000 
crop; Boston, Mass., 10,000 children, $100,000 crop. 

Wherever school garden work has been done previously to some 
degree, the U. S. S. G. A., with its insignia, posters, and direct 
pledge to the Government was found to greatly increase the en- 
rollment of pupils, and in other cities it made the introduction of 
such work possible. The scope of the work for 1919 was therefore 
greatly enlarged. To the five regional and one general director 
previously appointed were added nineteen assistant regional 
directors, who have spent the fall and winter in the field organizing 
for a total of 5,000,000 gardens this spring. They have influenced 
local boards of education to appropriate money for garden super- 
vision, have cooperated with agricultural colleges in putting on 
short courses this spring for the intensive training of teachers, have 
furnished tens of thousands of garden manuals and leaflets, all 
freshly written, for class room use. 

May we not now answer the question presented at the opening 
and agree that the war time reaction on our gardening is entirely 
and abundantly constructive? The year 1919 will be the greatest 
garden year yet realized, the pledge of the Food Administration 
for " two-thirds more food for export" imposing as great an obliga- 
tion upon the small gardens as did the war itself. 

We have then as never before a background, or foundation upon 
which to work for an expansion of gardening in the immediate 
future, viz: greater commercial activity; liquid assets; accelerated 
interest in outdoor affairs; thousands upon thousands of recruits 
of the present generation; a live children's interest; development 
of new homes; organized knowledge among women of an intelligent 
class; and above all. the public -auction that has been given to the 
tiller of the soil. 

A Hi \ OSSAN* 

What now are the agencies through which this great latent 

power (iiii be turned into effective use? All these recruit- to 

rden activity are creating a demand tor more supplies, tools, 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

equipment, plants, seeds, trees, and so forth; the machinery of 
gardening. 

Is the skilled horticulturist preparing to properly direct his 
energies so as not to let the present opportunity pass by? Are the 
teachers going out to meet the new comer at least half way? Are 
our organized institutions — societies, garden clubs, etc. — pre- 
pared to lend the helping hand? Will our writers realize more 
than ever that their w T ork is effective in proportion as they interest 
those hungry for knowledge of exact facts? Will they learn to 
write more of the things the masses need to know and less of aca- 
demic discussion among themselves? Will the dealer go to his 
market and not be content merely to sit down and wait for the 
market to come to him? It should be as easy to buy the things for 
the garden as it is to buy the things for the house. All the agencies 
are needed to work together with one common viewpoint if a 
renaissance in gardening is to be the outcome of the active condi- 
tions. 

What is a renaissance? I cannot do better than quote a para- 
graph from Mary Delan's " Short History of France." 

" It is difficult to know what causes a renaissance — one of 
those rare revivals and renewals of beauty and mind, invention 
and creation, which at long intervals transfigure the world and 
inaugurate a new order. I think they are always preceded 'by 
much coming and going on the surface of the earth, vast inter- 
changes of ideas and experience among the nations of men." 

Surely the prescribed conditions exist. 

That we are on the threshold of a renaissance in horticultural 
affairs is forcibly impressed upon me from many angles. To some 
of these I have already called your attention. Who would have 
expected two years ago that there could be easily launched a 
strongly supported movement to commemorate the deeds of our 
soldiers by the memorial plantings of trees on a nation wide scale? 
Yet it is an actual fact. 

Community Tree Planting. 

The movement, launched I believe by a nurseryman, Mr. Moon, 
has been fostered and hardly a dissenting voice has been heard. 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 65 

Various state department? have indorsed the plan for setting out 
memorial trees along the highways, to lend not only shelter and 
shade to the traveler, but at the same time, to add largely to the 
timber resources of the country. 

In one Ohio county an oak tree is being planted for each soldier 
who gave his life on the battlefields of Europe. Is this a symbol 
of a renaissance? Such movements are worthy of the support of 
all horticultural organizations because each one is a step in the 
right direction. 

What would be the effect if over the whole land each family 
planted its own honor tree in recognition of the service given by 
its members in arms? It would grow in dignity and in association; 
and as a living thing needing and receiving the loving care and 
attention of those who planted it, would increase in sentiment 
and affection as it grew in stature. The tree as a soldier's memorial 
is sanctified to us too, by the words of one of our own younger 
poets, Joyce Kilmer, sacrificed in the European holocaust, who 
leaves us these delightful lines: 

I think that I shall never see 

A poem lovely as a tree — 

A tree whose hungry mouth is prest 

Against the earth's sweet flowing breast. 

A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts her leafy arms to pray; 
A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair. 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain; 
Who intimately lives with rain. 
Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only God can make a tree. 

The nurseryman, it would seem, has but to stretch out his hand 
to grasp the opportunities that in manifold ways are unfolding al 
his doors. Ho should cultivate a renewed interesl in fruit to 
planting to meet the demands of the new gardeners, the legacy of 
the war garden \. 

Certainly nurserymen should lead in the increased trade mo- 
ment because the goods they have to offer to the people in some 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of their forms, at all events, produce the most food for the least 
labor and for the longest time after the initial investment is made. 
Being an isolated business man from the very nature of his enter- 
prise the nurseryman is somewhat slow to inaugurate a new, pro- 
gressive program to increase his output and to meet the demand. 
But he must do his part in fostering and developing the renais- 
sance. New methods of selling must be evolved. If the market is 
opening before him in the way that has been unfolded in the pre- 
ceding remarks, he too needs to become aggressive. 

The new gardener will stand in need of education not only in 
methods but in materials. The nurseryman's opportunity will be 
developed according to his intelligence and persistence in keeping 
himself in the limelight of public notice and offering goods that 
satisfv. 



Something more than Vegetables. 

Thousands of these people who have been gardening are ready 
to go a step beyond the mere cultivation of vegetables. Indeed 
they will be lost unless their interest is fed new worlds to conquer. 
It is a trite, but perfectly reasonable observation, that having 
once tasted the joys of gardening as a matter of necessity or patri- 
otic duty, they will be ready to continue for enjoyment and recrea- 
tion. 

I think it reasonable that the after war gardeners will in due time 
turn more or less from vegetable production to the growing of 
fruits, flowers, and ornamentals. Fruit production has not been 
maintained during the past four years and none of the land newly 
brought under cultivation has been set in fruit. New planting 
has ceased, old plantations have been neglected. This to such a 
degree that many nurserymen have done little propagation during 
recent years. 

The price of nursery stock will unquestionably be higher and for 
some time to come commercial planting of orchards will be on a 
reduced scale. This is the opportunity for both the home gardeners 
and of the nurserymen catering to them. Having found that 
growing plants is after all not such a difficult or serious affair they 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 67 

will be inclined to go a step farther and set out berry plants and 
bush fruits, and ultimately orchard trees. 

Having learned through their recent experiences that the home 
grown product is of a vastly superior quality they will be more 
readily open to conviction that the same thing is true of the fruits. 
Here, the nurseryman must be a missionary serving his customer 
to the best of his ability and teaching him that market varieties 
are not the best available for the home garden. 

In fact the two ideals are diametrically opposed, and one might 
almost go so far as to say that a variety of superlative market 
quality is, by that very token, scored down for the home. 

Here in this state, under the auspices of this very organization 
that in the past has rendered such valued service in introducing the 
fanciest fruits to the gardens of New England, it seems fitting at 
this time to again direct attention to the home standard of qualities 
in fruits. Have we not lost something in recent years? Is there 
to be a renaissance in this? 



The Returning Soldier. 

Is the returning soldier to be a factor in our renaissance? Surely 
there have been "much coming and going on the surface of the 
earth, vast interchanges of ideas and experiences among the nations 
of men." Already, indeed, we have some evidence that those who 
are returning, despite the appalling scenes of horror and devasta- 
tion, are coming back with visions of the beauty of the European 
home garden. They have seen thousands of them, hundreds of 
thousands of them, scenes of roadside and rural beauty that have 
been as bywords to the initiated horticulturist, who, however, has 
largely failed hitherto to find a responsive public. 

Not in vain have the "Poppies on Flanders field" bloomed 
before the eyes of our men, for they have seen with their own eyes 
what the growth of flowers may do to redeem tragedy and horror. 
They have seen flowers waving a welcome of color and delight away 
from the battlefield. 

We have been told how the people ol Prance and England wel- 
comed the troops with garlands and bouquets of flowers. When 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

our troops paraded in Paris on the 4th day of July the civilians 
along the line of march ran out and handed flowers to the fighting 
men. I have seen it, you have seen it, in the motion picture films. 
The people with one accord in giving expression to their joy wanted 
to "say it with flowers." 

Flowers have carried their messages of consolation into the hos- 
pitals. There will be a different response when the men again 
meet flowers around their own homes. If they are not met with 
flowers don't you think they will be missing something, these 
hundreds of thousands? They will look for them; can we afford 
to let their home coming discover us down at the heels? 

It seems to me that chief effort in holding on to and developing 
the latent possibilities here met, is very largely in the hands of 
those gentlemen who are also destined to reap the greatest benefit. 
I mean the various branches of the horticultural trade. It may 
be fairly questioned whether in the past the dealer has done his 
share in fostering and developing the market before him, but, 
however that mav be, he must in the future do more to cultivate 
his market. 

The florists have set a good example in their combined publicity 
campaign and their insistence upon the thought that whenever you 
have anvthing to sav vou can "sav it with flowers." The same 
kind of concrete idea should be put behind the publicity work of 
the allied branches. Publicity — advertising — is a big factor in 
the business world of to-day. 

The dealer in horticultural products has not yet learned the good 
business sense of putting himself in the customer's shoes. The 
average seed or nursery catalogue does little to help the prospective 
customer. As evidence let me introduce a letter written by a 
prominent business man on Fifth Avenue, New York City, and it 
is representative of others. For obvious reasons I have substituted 
A and B for definite names: 

"I have bought A's seeds for a number of years, but I was 
drawn to B because his catalogue is so much better than A's; that 
is. the arrangement seems more intelligent. 

"How on earth is a man like me to buy seeds from the kind of 
catalogues that are sent out by the seedsmen? These do not 
seem to be written for either the plain simp like myself or the market 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 69 

gardener. I have an idea that they are written for competitors. 

"Surely every specimen or variety of one vegetable or flower 
cannot be Mammoth, Colossal, the Earliest, the Largest, the most 
Prolific. Take Peas, for instance. How is one to select Peas 
from A's catalogue? What do these different varieties mean? I 
find that some of the names given to the varieties are the exclusive 
property of the seedsman, and others seem common to the vege- 
table world. 

" I decided to have Savoy Cabbage because we like that better 
than any other kind, having eaten it a great deal in England, but 
Savoy Cabbage is not catalogued in either A or B. By good luck 
I find an article in a magazine on raising cabbage, which says that 
the best of the Savoys is the Drumhead. I find Drumhead in both 
catalogues, but neither description mentions that the Drumhead 
is Savoy. How are we to know these things? 

"You may possibly reply that the catalogue is not written for 
such an ignoramus as I am, but there must be a lot like me. I 
think that an intelligent advertising man could work a revolution 
in seed catalogues by making them so anybody can select seeds 
intelligently. # 

"Restrictions have been put upon numbers and styles of many 
businesses on account of the war. In certain lines manufacturers 
were ordered to cut out variations that merely multiply, and the 
restrictions placed on the use of paper combined to simplify the 
situation. Shoemakers, stationers, tire manufacturers, had hith- 
erto carried unnecessary numbers in various lines with very little 
idea of selling them, but rather to dazzle the trade* and the public. 

"Every time Jones got a new style in his particular line Smith, 
Brown, and Robinson hastened to rush out a similar style to com- 
pete with it. To dress the line, not to sell. Nearly all th< 
manufacturers welcomed the necessity to cut them out: and few 
of them will go back to the old method. Is it possible that a good 
many of the different strains and varieties that the seedsmen think 
it necessary to show are inspired by the same motivi 

What will the seedsman answer? 

It is difficult for a man to stand off and gel perspective on his 
own case, and under existing conditions the seedsman's outlook is 
none too bright for the immediate future and perhaps for a COUpk 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of years to come. Certain stocks for which dependence has been 
placed on the European growers in the past are naturally uncertain 
quantities to-day. It will be difficult to maintain standards. In 
some cases the energies of the men who grew the seeds have been 
diverted into the destruction of war. This is equally true of both 
France and Germany. Some of the finer strains of certain lines 
may be lost for all time. 

On the other hand, the American grower has spread out consider- 
ably and it has been suggested that an infant industry that is show- 
ing great vitality might be carefully nursed to large proportions; 
and that the work of seed growing opens up a productive and suit- 
able field for reeducated American soldiers, who have been so un- 
fortunate as to have suffered such injuries as prevent their engage- 
ment in heavy labor. Seed growing seems to offer congenial 
occupation for the physically weak but mentally alert man. 

Supply and demand are interrelated. The nurseryman and 
florist see their outlook somewhat darkly to-day as they come to 
realize that recent government regulation is affecting them. I 
refer to the condition brought about by the action of the Federal 
PJorticultural Board in restricting imports of foreign stock, which 
ruling becomes effective on the first of June. 

Of course, there is a division of opinion on this ; but, if the ruling 
stands as issued the reaction in our gardens, especially on our 
private estates and the better kept gardens, will be startling and 
although not directly connected with after war reaction, still its 
effects will be synchronous, and may properly be considered to-day. 

If, and as I honestly believe, it is the universal belief that we are 
on the verge of a greatly increased demand for all kinds of horti- 
cultural products, then the proposed embargo has a close relation- 
ship to our present discussions. 

Effective June 1st, 1919, the order practically prohibits all foreign 
imports and this affects seriously the supplies of a great many of 
the most popular and commonly cultivated garden plants. There 
will be no Azaleas, Rhododendrons, Spiraeas, Araucarias, Dracae- 
nas. Boxwood with its "fragrance of eternity" will no more be 
available for edgings and so forth. 

The Orchid collector will see his gems gradually diminishing 
with no chance of replenishment. The gardens and nurseries of 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 71 

Europe which have given us novelties in Dahlias, Iris, Peonies, 
and many other favorites of our hardy border may no longer be 
drawn upon. 

Importations from abroad will be restricted to Lily bulbs, Lily- 
of-the-Valley, Narcissus, Hyacinths, Tulips, and Crocus free from 
soil; no other bulbs. Our Rose gardens will have to wait some 
years before the novelties of the world can be introduced into 
American gardens. 

Commercial importation of ordinary articles of the nursery 
trade is absolutely prohibited. Why? Say the authorities: "to 
exclude dangerous insect pests." The order will permit the im- 
portation of fruit stocks, seedlings, scions, and buds of fruits for 
reproduction, Rose stocks for reproduction purposes including 
Manetti, Multiflora, Brier, and Rugosa. 

You will be permitted, however, to import seeds of forest orna- 
mentals and shade trees, deciduous and evergreen shrubs and hardy 
perennials. The exclusion of budded Rose plants and the admis- 
sion of stock on which named novelties are budded or grafted may 
be worthy of further consideration. It is hard to see how a budded 
or grafted plant bearing a modern variety can be more dangerous 
to the country than the same root and stem not budded. 

Provision is made for the importation through official channels 
for material for propagation which is to be kept under observation 
and distributed when "in the opinion of the officials" it shall 
be safe. 

Is it any wonder that the nursery trade is protesting that the 
board in this order is stepping dangerously on to the questions of 
trade policy and tariff reform? What a picture we present ! "We 
pity yon, Belgium, and hope from the bottom of our hearts that 
you will reestablish your Industries. We shall gladly see yon once 
again resume your place in the commerce of the world, but don't 
expect us to buy anything from yon; by nil means, no." Killing 
the dog to destroy the fleas! 

Hut there are many people, whose opinion is worth eonsiderii 
who believe that the ultimate reaction of this embargo will be for 
the benefit of the entire industry. Tt will shorten the available 

supply in the immediate future along certain lines. They believe 

t will stimulate our own plantsmen and nurserymen into new 1' 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

of industry, exploiting new stocks of little known plants, and 
through the desire for new creations the achievements of certain 
American horticulturists of more than a generation ago may be 
repeated. Perhaps, as the bard of Avon wrote, 

We, ignorant of ourselves, 

Beg often our own harms, which the wise powers 

Deny us for our good; so find we profit. 

There is a very evident confusion of two entirely different issues. 
On the one hand there is the restricted business of those who deal 
largely in imported novelties and certain other material produced 
in great quantities by the trade in Europe; and, on the other hand, 
there is the stimulating effect on those who are anticipating an 
opportunity to supply the hitherto existing demand with something 
of a different character or type. The effects of any such action 
will do much to change the general character of our gardens. Some 
foresee in this, material aid to an all- American type of ornamental 
gardening that will be founded upon the available material. It has 
been openly confessed for a long time past that certain goods pro- 
duced cheaply in Europe and planted indiscriminately in American 
gardens have constituted a drag anchor on our progress. 

Of course this is really befogging the main issue of the exclusion 
problem which would largely prevent us getting many things and 
would build up a barrier against interchange and progress. If the 
order remains in effect we shall undoubtedly have to start creating 
a great deal of the material on which progressive horticulturists 
have been depending, and it will take time. 

It may be fitting for this society at this time to indulge in inter- 
changes of ideas on this very pertinent subject of plant exclusion 
and perhaps to take such action as may seem desirable. 

Organized societies, such as the one under whose auspices we 
meet to-day, must recognize their share of responsibility in the 
renaissance. It would be very unfortunate if the present garden- 
ing interest should wane and die out through inaction here. It 
seems to me we should make an extra effort to reach the amateur. 
Societies might offer additional prizes for beginners; perhaps 
they should hold exhibitions exclusively for those who have never 
exhibited previously. Prizes should be honor awards of cups and 



GARDENING AFTER THE WAR 73 

medals which the winner may keep, rather than money which is 
soon spent. 

The foundation of scholarships for instruction in practical 
gardening by the Women's National Farm and Garden Associa- 
tion is a step in the right direction. These are held at the state 
colleges. 

Awakened love of gardening; valued physical benefits there- 
from; aroused interest from old world contact; properly stimu- 
lated rivalry in competition; and a keener civic pride will accom- 
plish great things in the future for American gardening. 

What has been said may not be very constructive after all; 
indeed it may be all wrong from beginning to end. But I have 
tried to lay before you conditions as they seem to me, and person- 
ally I hope for much from the future, and besides a* it lias been 
expressed by another (J. P. Peabody in The Piper), 

It is so glad and Bad and strange, 
To find out what will happen next. 






PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS AGAINST 

ALIEN ENEMIES. 

By Dr. B. T. Galloway, Washington, D. C, Pathologist, 

Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



Delivered before the Society, with stereopticon illustrations, February 15, 

1919. 






The John Lewis Russell Lecture. 

In a recent publication issued by the Bureau of Entomology, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture; there is listed, partly figured, 
and partly described, something over 2,200 species of dangerous 
insects that are likely to be introduced into this country. The 
publication also sets forth a list of about 110 insect pests already 
introduced which cause losses to our crop plants of more than five 
hundred million dollars annually. Similar lists of introduced 
and likely to be introduced plant diseases have not yet been pre- 
pared. There is sufficient evidence at hand, however, to warrant 
the statement that the number of diseases produced by fungi and 
related organisms likely to be introduced and already introduced 
is fully equal to the number of insect-. 

The injuries which these introduced diseases are causing are 
fully as great as the injuries produced by insects. The 1. S. 
Department of Agriculture is now carrying in its annual budg 
appropriations to the amount of about one million dollars to be 
used solely and exclusively in fighting a small Dumber of the more 
important alien erop enemies that have recently been brought 
into this country. The million dollars i- expended largely for 
combative, curative, and eradicative measures. The sum, in 
other words, is an annual tax levied <>u the people* in order to help 

hold in cheek certain pests that have already been brought here. 

7.-- 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

In addition to the million dollars spent as described, several 
millions more are being annually expended by the Federal and 
State Governments in the control of pests which have long been 
with us, and which for the most part are undesirable immigrants 
that came in with our earlier commercial plant importations. 
More than fifteen million dollars has been spent in the New England 
States by the Federal Government, the States themselves, pri- 
vate individuals, and others in combating the gipsy moth since 
its introduction. 

We might proceed with such examples indefinitely, but it is 
hardly necessary before this audience to advance further argu- 
ments as to the damage caused by these enemies. They are 
recognized everywhere and the very fact that they are so com- 
mon is probably one reason why they have come to be looked upon 
as part of the price we must pay for being a very big country, a 
very rich country, and a very thriftless country when it comes 
to the prevention of needless wastes. Granting the facts as pre- 
sented, let us see if we can not develop a sort of background for 
what we shall have to say regarding practical working protective 
measures that have been adopted and that may be adopted against 
these alien enemies to our crop plants. 

First. Alien enemies to our crop plants may be actual or poten- 
tial. They exist in all parts of the world. Many of the enemies 
have been listed and studied and their powers for injury determined. 
Many more have not been studied and their power for injury may 
only be surmised. Because an insect or plant disease is destructive 
in a foreign country is not always a criterion that it will be destruc- 
tive here if introduced. On the other hand, an insect or disease 
that may not be occasioning any serious damage in a foreign land 
may after introduction here sweep like fire through our fields or 
through our forests. For example, the chestnut blight disease 
has for centuries existed among the chestnut trees of China, but 
its damage there is more or less negligible in comparison with the 
havoc it has caused here since its introduction. The cotton boll 
weevil rested in peace and quiet for centuries in its Guatemalan 
mountain home, but suddenly it found its way through Mexico 
into Texas and in fifteen years has caused losses aggregating more 
than a billion dollars and has worked a revolution in our agricul- 
tural practices of the South. 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 77 

We have these plant enemies, therefore, both actual and poten- 
tial, in all foreign countries. We shall always have them, and the 
more intensive our agricultural and horticultural practices become, 
the more likely are we to suffer from alien plant foes. 

Second. Xo system of plant inspection or no plan of plant 
exclusion will suffice to entirely control the spread of these foreign 
crop foes. There are no longer hermit kingdoms in the world. 
Barring periods of war, men must move about freely over the earth 
and the waters of the sea. Travel and commerce are international. 
The good things of mankind and the bad things of mankind go with 
mankind. Wherever he goes they go. Willingly or unwillingly, 
knowingly or unknowingly, consciously or unconsciously, man is 
the direct and indirect agent for the transportation of things that 
may make him or things that may break him. Recognizing th 
fundamental truths, there are two things that man may do to meet 
the situation. He may adopt a laisser-faire doctrine and say that 
what is to be will be, or he may take measures which while not 
curative will at least be palliative. ^ 

Third. The elaborate and systematic activities for the preven- 
tion of the spread of diseases among man and domestic animals 
and the preliminary steps that have been taken with respect to 
plants along this line are all palliative. Despite every precaution, 
diseases come in, but it has come to be recognized as a fundamental 
tenet that these palliative measures pay. Every civilized country 
in the world now practices these measures Naturally the in 
intensive efforts have been made in the direction of protecting the 
health of mankind. Next, the most elaborate and to some extent 
the most perfect system has to do with the prevention of the 
spread of animal diseases throughout the world. These palliative 
or protective measures, therefore, have come to be regarded by 
all civilized countries as a form of insurance, highly essential and 
necessary to the public welfare. 

We have now seen that actual and potential enemies to our crop 
plants exist in all parts of the world; that no sysl n of inspection 
or exclusion will completely keep these enemi< that we may 

fold our hands and let matters take care of themselves, or we may 

adopt certain measures which are palliative and which are well 
worth while, for they constitute a form of insurance that civilized 
countries have found it to their interests to carry. 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

It has taken a good many years to crystallize public sentiment 
where it recognizes the principles we have here set forth. Public 
sentiment is the barometer recording the things the people want 
done. It usually manifests itself through those agencies which 
the people set up to represent them, namely, their legislative bodies. 
Ten years ago a number of states had begun legislation with the 
object of protecting themselves against outside enemies in the 
shape of insects or diseases or both. Even earlier there was legis- 
lation such as the peach yellow laws, plum black knot law, San' 
Jose scale law, and other laws. 

Nursery inspection came into existence, so that gradually there 
grew in the public mind the demand for protection against plant 
enemies that were coming to us each year from foreign countries. 
Six years ago pressure for some Federal action in the matter of 
meeting these alien foes became so great that congressional action 
was finally secured, resulting in the passage of the Federal Plant 
Quarantine Act. This law went into effect in 1912. The law, 
like many others of similar nature, w T as a compromise. It repre- 
sented on the one hand the views of a group of specialists who had 
been face to face with a series of problems of a most serious nature, 
which unrestricted commercial plant importations had thrust 
upon the country. On the other hand, there was a coterie of men 
who had large commercial interests at stake and who did not look 
with favor on any steps that might tend to interfere with what they 
considered their legitimate business operations. 

The Plant Quarantine Act carried with it the authority for the 
appointment of a Board by the Secretary of Agriculture, to be 
known as the Federal Horticultural Board. The Act further pro- 
vided that the Board should be made up of representatives from 
each of the large bureaus in the Department interested in plants, 
namely, the Bureau of Entomology, the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
and the Bureau of Forestry. Fortunately the Act gave wide dis- 
cretionary power to the Secretary of Agriculture, which through 
him is vested in the Board. I am not a member of the Board, 
therefore I may be permitted to speak with the freedom of one 
who has watched its work and the effects of what it has done on 
certain agricultural and horticultural activities in which I have 
long been interested. 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 79 

During the six years of its existence, the Board, by its eminently 
fair attitude toward the industries affected and the painstaking 
way in which it has met and handled the various problems pre- 
sented to it, has gained the confidence of the public. Its work 
necessarily had to be evolutionary. It must continue so because 
hard and fast lines can at no time be drawn in such matters. After 
very careful investigation in each case, the Board issued a number 
of special foreign and domestic quarantines which unquestionably 
have done much to protect the country from alien plant enemies 
and the further spread of some of those we are so unfortunate as 
to have already with us. 

The Board has developed a S3 r stem of organized inspection, 
which beyond doubt is the best of its kind anywhere in the world. 
The results secured by its trained corps of workers are such as to 
make practicable the ability to detect many of the serious enemies 
by rigid and intensive systems of inspection. The very fact that 
so much has been accomplished along these lines has shown the 
inadequacy of the usual inspection methods and points to the need 
of more effective protective action in the exclusion of the host 
plants themselves. 

During the past two or three years the need for plant exclusion 
has been more strongly felt. Public sentiment demanded action 
and has been quite insistent on greater protection. As evidence 
of this, various organized agencies have taken action. Such bodies 
as the state departments of agriculture and horticulture, state 
nursery inspectors, state entomologists, American Association of 
Forestry, American Phytopathological Society, and various other 
organizations have voiced their opinion as to the need far action 
which would meet the situation. The Federal Horticultural Board 
gave all these matters careful consideration. Hearings were held 
from time to time and many discussions took place with repre- 
sentatives of horticultural interests and other workers in this 
country. 

\Miile these matters were under consideration by the Bo 
certain legislative action of a very drastic nature wae proposed. 
Bills were introduced which were referred to the Department and 
which upon the recommendation of the Board were left unconsid- 
ered. It was believed that the Federal Horticultural Hoard hail 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

full power under the law to take whatever action was necessary 
in the premises. The Federal Horticultural Board, not content 
with the opinion of its own members, called upon plant experts of 
the Department who gave the matter very careful study, with the 
result that it recommended that while complete exclusion would 
afford the greatest measure of safety, it would be necessary under 
existing conditions to permit the entry of certain plants under 
restrictions, and this was the action finally taken by the Board 
in the issuing of Quarantine Order No. 37. 

The speaker from this point illustrated his remarks by means 
of lantern slides, many of which were colored. First was dis- 
cussed the scope and effect of Quarantine Order No. 37, it being 
pointed out that certain plant materials like fruits, vegetables, 
cereals, and other plant products imported for food, medicinal, 
or manufacturing purposes, and all vegetable, field, and flower seeds 
could come in as heretofore without restrictions. Certain nursery 
stock and other plants and seeds not covered by special quarantines 
might be imported from foreign countries when free from sand or 
soil or when packed in sand or soil properly sterilized. 

These plants and plant materials consist of lily bulbs, lily of 
the valley, narcissus, hyacinths, tulips, and crocus; stocks, cuttings, 
scions, and buds of fruits for propagation; rose stocks for propa- 
gation, including Manetti, Multiflora, Brier rose, and Rosa rugosa; 
nuts, including palm seeds, for propagation; seeds of fruit, forest, 
ornamental, and shade trees, seeds of deciduous and evergreen 
ornamental shrubs, and seeds of hardy perennial plants. 

The special foreign quarantines already in existence were then 
discussed. It was pointed out why these quarantines were put 
into effect and the objects that had been accomplished thereby. 
Special mention was made of a new corn disease which is known 
to exist in certain tropical countries, notably Java, and which is 
now receiving special study from experts in the Department. It 
is believed by the experts of the Department that if this disease is 
introduced into the United States, it would prove a very serious 
enemy to our greatest of all crops — Indian corn. 

Diagrams were shown indicating the plants which automatically 
would not be permitted entry after the quarantine went into 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 81 

effect. This includes practically all ornamentals, a considerable 
list of what is commonly known as florist stock, bush fruits, fruit 
trees, grapevines, etc. It was pointed out that it would still be 
practicable under the new quarantine regulations to bring in 
novelties for the use of horticulturists and others. The proposed 
methods for bringing in these novelties were described. This 
work will be handled through the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant 
Introduction in the Department of Agriculture. The novelties 
will be received and cared for at the inspection houses in Washing- 
ton and when found to be free from dangerous insects and diseases 
will be forwarded to the importers. 

The work of the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction 
was then described. This office for more than twenty years has 
been bringing into the country plants, seeds, and other plant 
products from all parts of the world for the purpose of aiding and 
building up our own crop industries. More than 50,000 intro- 
ductions have been made. Five special stations have been estab- 
lished for the purpose of growing, testing, and propagating these 
new introductions. Many hundreds of collaborators are also en- 
gaged in this work. It has been the primary object of the office 
to bring in and introduce plants only after it was certain they were 
entirely free from injurious insects and diseases. 

To this end the office has collaborated with the Federal Horti- 
cultural Board and has established well equipped inspection houses, 
quarantine houses, detention houses, etc., in Washington, D. C. 
The methods pursued in the inspections and the proper care of 
the plants were then fully described and illustrated by means of 
lantern slides. If at any time it is found that certain plants 
brought in are suspected of harboring some obscure disease which 
is not immediately evident, provision is made for growing such 
plants in quarantine under very careful isolation methods. 

The speaker stated that it was the object of the Office of Foreign 
Seed and Plant Introduction to aid horticulturists and others in 
every practical way in the development of their work. The 
methods that have been followed in the introduction and estab- 
lishment of some of the more valuable foreign plants were described. 
The Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction i> now engaged 

in quite elaborate investigations of Mock-- for our fruit and orna- 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

mental plants. Special attention is being given to the pear and 
the rose. The office has introduced more than 400 different kinds 
of pears in the last twenty years. Recently some valuable dis- 
coveries have been made in connection with blight-resistant pears. 
Most of these pears are proving valuable adjuncts to our collection 
for use as stocks. One of these was introduced by the Arnold 
Arboretum and the original tree is growing there at the present 
time. This is known as Pyrus calleryana and is one of the most 
promising stocks now being tested. 

Experiments and investigations in cooperation with nursery- 
men were described showing the methods being followed in testing 
out these stocks. The Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Intro- 
duction has made some valuable introductions in the way of roses 
which may prove useful for stocks. These, together with other 
promising types, are being tested in various parts of the country. 

The equipment and work of the several field stations were 
described and the speaker stated that all of these facilities were 
at the disposal of horticulturists in connection with any lines of 
constructive work that might be of value in advancing the horti- 
cultural interests of the country. 



Conclusions. 

The conclusions in reference to protecting American crop plants 
against alien enemies were summarized as follows: 

1. There are many thousands of insects and diseases not yet 
introduced here, which are known to attack plants in foreign coun- 
tries. Since the organization of the Federal Horticultural Board in 
1912 and the development of careful systems of inspection, an 
average of about 100 dangerous insects and about the same number 
of fungous and related parasites have been discovered each year 
on stock shipped to this country from Holland, Belgium, France, 
England, Germany, and Japan. Holland is credited with 148 
such insects, Japan 108, France 89, Belgium 64, England 62, and 
Germany 15. 

2. The material proving the greatest source of danger consists 
of balled or potted plants with earth about their roots. It is 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 83 

impracticable to properly inspect such material here and the certi- 
ficates of foreign inspectors have proved to be of little or no value. 
From one of the smaller European countries 1,236 separate and 
distinct shipments were examined in the past six years and each 
shipment was found to be infested with one or more dangerous 
insects. Three hundred seven of these shipments were azaleas. 

3. No system of inspection will prevent the spread of danger- 
ous insects and diseases. The very best system of inspection may 
delay the spread and for this reason properly conducted inspection 
pays, for it may be regarded as a form of insurance. Exclusion 
of the plants themselves is not always an absolute safeguard, but 
it is the safest method known and has been adopted in one form or 
another by practically all civilized countries. 

4. After careful study of all phases of the subject the Federal 
Horticultural Board decided on a system of limited exclusion. 
Under this plan the governing principle is to limit commercial plant 
importations to the classes of plants which have been represented 
by the plant interests concerned in this country as being essential 
to plant production ; in other words, the raw material out of which 
salable fruit trees, roses, etc., are made. To these have been added 
certain classes of plants, including bulbs and seeds, which could be 
reasonably safeguarded by inspection and disinfection. 

5. The main features of the new quarantine are as follows: 
Requires permits and compliance with regulations for importa- 
tion of lily bulbs, lily of the valley, narcissus, hyacinths, tulips, 
and crocus; stocks, cuttings, scions, and buds of fruits for propa- 
gation; rose stocks for propagation, including Manetti, Multi- 
flora, Brier Rose, and Rosa Rugosa; nuts, including palm seeds, 
for propagation; seeds of fruit, forest, ornamental, and shade 
trees, seeds of deciduous and evergreen ornamental shrubs, and 
seeds of hardy perennial plants. 

Leaves unrestricted, except in special cases, importations of 
fruits, vegetables, cereals, and other plant products imported for 
medicinal, food or manufacturing purposes; and field, vegetable, 
and flower seeds. 

Excludes all other classes of plants for propagation, including 
fruit trees, grapevines, bush fruits, grafted and budded ro 
forest, ornamental, and deciduous trees, ornamental and decidu- 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

ous shrubs, pine trees of all kinds, broad-leaved evergreens (such 
as azaleas and rhododendrons), and a long list of plant material 
commonly known as florists' stock. 

Excluded plants may still be imported through the agency of 
the Department of Agriculture, in limited quantities to supply 
the country with novelties and necessary propagating stock, such 
entry being safeguarded by highly-developed inspection and quar- 
antine service which has been organized by the Department. 

6. The Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction in the 
Department of Agriculture will act as an agency to aid horticul- 
turists and others in the importation of novelties and plants for 
propagating, etc. The office has been introducing new and rare 
plants for more than twenty years and during that time it has 
brought in more than 50,000 lots. It has developed special facili- 
ties for the care of plants during inspection and has established 
five field stations where its introductions are propagated and tested. 
It is engaged in constructive work on stocks for American fruit 
trees and stocks for roses and other ornamental plants. Studies 
are also being made of the regions which offer the best conditions 
for the growing of ornamentals and other plants now imported 
in large numbers but which under the new quarantine will be 
excluded. 

Discussion. 

A spirited and at times acrimonious discussion followed Dr. 
Galloway's lecture, especially that part of it referring to the recent 
regulations of the Federal Horticultural Board governing the 
importation into the United States of plants and plant products, 
as embodied in Plant Quarantine No. 37, effective June 1, 1919. 

William N. Craig said he considered Dr. Galloway's defence of 
Quarantine No. 37 to be rather weak and pitiful. He asked the 
Lecturer whether there was any more danger in importing such 
bulbs as iris, snowdrops, chionodoxa, fritillarias, gladioli, begonias, 
and gloxinias than in tulips, narcissi, hyacinths, crocus, and liliums. 
Was there any remote possibility that the former should be any 
greater carriers of pests or diseases than the latter, and could he 
enumerate any dangerous pests which had come in on bulbs? 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 85 

The statement in the recent memorandum issued by the Federal 
Horticultural Board that debarred plants "could be promptly 
produced in this country" was entirely contrary to facts. Was he 
aware that it required 5 to 10 years to raise orchids from seed to 
the flowering stage? That bay trees such as are demanded here 
are 10 to 25 years old, boxwoods 12 to 15 years old, and rhodo- 
dendrons, azaleas, araucarias, and other plants, including the 
growing of stocks to be grafted on, 6 to 7 years old? Who was 
willing to begin the propagation of these plants here and wait 
long years without any financial returns and probably have a new 
Federal Horticultural Board take off the quarantine? 

We could not produce satisfactory fruit and rose stocks here and 
had to import them. Holland threatened to prohibit exports of 
these stocks. If Britain and France did likewise what would 
growers here do? Rose stocks were to be admitted and grafted 
roses debarred. Was there any more possible danger from one 
than the other? The Lecturer admitted that all of heroic Belgium's 
products were to be debarred, as there was grave danger of injuri- 
ous pests coming in on soil. Why did they permit the unchecked 
importation of one thousand bales of peat moss litter uninspected 
and unfumigated from the same country? 

Why did not the Lecturer tell the audience that the gipsy moth, 
our worst New England pest, did not come in on nursery stock but 
was turned loose by an entomologist near Boston? That the corn 
root borer came in on hemp stock or rope, winch latter commodities 
are still permitted entry? That the pink boll worm and Hessian 
fly did not come in on nursery stock? That the white pine blister 
rust came in on an importation made by the U. S. Government 
itself, and that the chestnut bark disease arrived on the hoofs of 
animals sent to the New York Zoological Gardens? 

The whole measure was full of inconsistencies and clearly showed 
the folly of allowing a board which contained no practical horti- 
culturists to make up so iniquitous a quarantine. This hoard 
was created to protect our plants from enemy alien pests but it 
looks as if they were endeavoring to put through a tariff measure 
at the behests of a small minority of propagators and nurserymen. 

Attempts to produce azaleas and rhododendrons on a large seale 
on the Pacific coast had resulted in complete failure. There was 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

no proof that bulbs of a satisfactory quality could be produced 
here and long years of patient work would be needed to give us 
the plants now debarred from our European allies. It was 
unfriendly legislation and was sure to be resented abroad. If 
enacted it would do immense harm to horticulture, render our 
gardens, greenhouses, and exhibitions far less interesting, and 
bring serious loss and ruin to many growers. 

Mr. Craig said there seems to be no valid reason why careful 
inspection by properly trained men before shipment and after 
arrival should not amply safeguard our growers at home. He 
considered this quarantine unjust, unfair, and very discriminating. 
In it Germany is distinctly favored, while friendly nations have 
practically all their products debarred. It was his earnest belief 
that this quarantine should not go into effect on June 1, and that 
no such action should be taken which does not properly safeguard 
the increasingly important horticultural interests of America. 

Mr. Craig offered a series of resolutions embodying the sugges- 
tions made in his remarks which were approved by a majority of 
those present. 

In reply to Mr. Craig's strong denunciation of the proposed 
Quarantine No. 37, Dr. Galloway remarked that this quarantine 
would go into effect on June 1 and stay there forever, no matter 
if you pass forty resolutions, and that orchids and the other flowers 
mentioned do not amount to a bagatelle. 

John E. Lager said that he had devoted the best part of his life 
to horticulture; especially in orchid collecting and growing. He 
asked if the Lecturer could tell him of any case of infestation coming 
in through orchid importations. Orchids were grown in green- 
houses, so do not get outside to any extent. 

Dr. Galloway replied that it was difficult to examine and disin- 
fect orchid plants without serious injury to them and that numer- 
ous insects had been found on them, some of which might have 
proved dangerous. 

W. H. Wyman remarked that most of our injurious plant pests 
had not come through nursery stock. He had attended the hear- 
ings in Washington and had protested without effect the autocratic 
rulings of the Federal Horticultural Board which threatened to 
throttle the horticultural interests of the country. 



PROTECTING AMERICAN CROP PLANTS 87 

John K. M. L. Farquhar said that he had kept in touch with the 
subject for some time and had attended the hearings of the Federal 
Horticultural Board in Washington. He said that the action of 
the Board was unwise and if carried out would set back horticul- 
ture in the United States fifty years and would reduce the interest 
in it forty per cent. He had been disappointed that the Board 
should have adopted such drastic measures and that it was the 
duty of horticulturists to oppose the order. 

George N. Smith said he regretted that the beautiful flowers 
produced in Europe could no longer be seen here. It was evident 
that the consensus of opinion at this meeting was against the 
adoption of Quarantine Order No. 37, and that we should not 
consent to it but should oppose it strongly. 



f^— WW— MSw—— — •*" ' :.~i- - - : ■ - — 



The Cosmos Press, Inc. 
cambbidoe 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS 
HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



PART II 




PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

BOSTON 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND TWENTY 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




assat jrasrits pflriiotltral Swriet j 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



PART II 




BOSTON 

PRINTED FOIl THE SOCIETY 

NINETEEN HUNDRED AND TWENTY 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



1919. 



The Transactions of the Society are issued annually in two parts 
under the direction of the Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

Communications relating to the objects of the Society, its publi- 
cations, exhibitions, and membership, may be addressed to William 
P. Rich, Secretary, Horticultural Hall, No. 300 Massachusetts 
Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. 



Fred A. Wilson 

Chairman 
Thomas Allen 
John K. M. L. Farquhar 



Committee 

on 

Lectures and 

Publications. 



90 



CONTENTS 



Annual Reports for the Year 1919 

Report of the Hoard of Trustees .... 
Report of the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions 
Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers 
Report of the Committee on Fruits 
Report of the Committee on Vegetables 
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens 
Report of the Secretary and Librarian . 
Report of the Treasurer .... 

The Annual Meeting, Novembeb 15, L919 

Necrology, 1919 

Officers, Committees, and Members, L919 



95 

io:> 

107 
117 
1 25 
133 
137 
L39 
147 
151 
155 



91 



ANNUAL REPORTS FOR THE YEAR L919, 






TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



%$mMl\Mttt& goftoltal $f octets 



1919, PART II. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

The Board of Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society presents herewith to the members a summary of the busi- 
ness transacted at its meetings during the year 1919. 

January 11. Mr. Saltonstall for the special committee on the 
finances of the Society submitted the following report which was 
accepted and adopted: 

At a meeting of t ho Special Committee of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society held od the -1st day of November, 1918, at which Messrs. 
Gen. Stephen M. "Weld, Charles \Y. Moeeley, and R. M. Saltonstall were 
present, also Mr. Walter Hunnewell, Treasurer, Mr. F. A. Theall. Mr. 
Hunnewell's assistant, and Mr. William I'. Rich, Secretary, the report of 

Harvey S. ('hast 1 & Company on the audit of the accounts of the Society 

for the year ending Dec. 31, 1917, was again considered and notably the 
matter of the item of $ 18,500.95 carried on the Treasurer's books as Surplus 
Income, and after due consideration, it was determined advisable that there 
should be sundry charges made against this item of Surplus Income as 
follows: — 

First: — Investment Account: It was determined advisable to chai 
off certain premiums to luinu; the hook value of bonds down to par. and 
for this account a total amount of 18,625.25 was charged against Surplus 

Income and credited to the Investment Account. 

Second: — Library Equipment; It was determined advisable to add 

■■-, 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

SI, 470. 00 to the book values of Library Books and Equipment, and Ac- 
cumulated Income credited with that amount. 

Third : — Plates and Copies of Histories Account : It was determined 
advisable to charge off $235.50 on this account as the articles represented 
thereby were of doubtful value, and Accumulated Income charged this 
amount. 

Fourth: — Furniture and Exhibition Ware: It was deemed advisable 
that the book value of the same should be reduced by the amount of 
$2,814.35, and said amount charged to Accumulated Income. 

Fifth: — Society's Building: It was found that no repairs had been 
charged against the book value of the building of the Society corner of 
Massachusetts and Huntington Avenues, and it was thought proper that 
a charge for depreciation against the value of the building against Accumu- 
lated Income should be made of $20,000.00, and this amount therefore was 
credited to the Building Account. 

Sixth: — Special Prizes: The books showed that there were a number 
of small special prizes with balance of $112.00 which had never been closed 
out, and Accumulated Income was credited with said amount of $112.00. 

The result of the foregoing changes is as follows: 

Surplus Income Credited: 

Special Prizes $112.00 

Library Equipment 1,470.00 

Surplus Income 48,500.95 



$50,082.95 Jan. 1, 1918. 
Surplus Income Debited: 

Investments 8,625.25 

Plates and Copies of Hist. . . . 235.50 

Furniture & Ex. Ware 2,814.35 

Society's Building 20,000.00 



31,675.10 



,407 . 85 Balance of Surplus. 



It w r as voted that beginning January 1, 1919, the entire receipts 
for life membership fees be credited to the permanent funds of the 
Society. 

The suggestion made by William X. Craig at the Annual Meeting 
of the Society, November 16, 1918, that the Trustees be requested 
to make an appropriation for exhibits of plants and flowers at the 
exhibitions of the year 1919, was presented and approved. Mr. 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 97 

Saltonstall stated that the Advisory Committee had recommended 
to the Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions that $500 of the annual 
appropriation be used for that purpose. 

A synopsis of the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 
1919 was presented by the Advisory Committee and approved by 
the Board. 

An appropriation of $400 was voted for the library for the year 
1919 and an appropriation of $500, to include the income of the 
John Lewis Russell Fund, was voted for lectures in 1920. 

Walter Hunnewell was appointed Treasurer of the Society for 
the current year and William P. Rich was appointed Secretary, 
Librarian, and Superintendent of the Building. James Wheeler 
was appointed Superintendent of Exhibitions with a salary of $300. 

The nominating committee consisting of Messrs. Allen, Roland, 
and Saltonstall reported the following list of the Standing Com- 
mittees of the Society for the current year which was approved 
and adopted: 

Committees fob 1919. 

Finance: — Walter Hunnewell, Chairman, Arthur F. Estabrook, 

Stephen M. Weld. 
Membership: — Thomas Allen, Charles W. Moseley, Thomas 

Roland, Richard M. Saltonstall, Edwin S. Webster. 
Prizes and Exhibitions: — James Wheeler, Chairman, Robert 

Cameron, William X. Craig, Duncan F inlay son, T. I). 

Hatfield. 
Plants and Flowers: — William Anderson, Chairman, Douglas 

Keeleston, S. J. Goddard, Donald McK'en/.ie, William 

Sim. 
Fruits: — Edward R. Wilder, Chairman, Isaac II. Locke, James 

Mcthven, Fred A. Smith. 
Vegetables: —John L. Smith, Chairman, Edward Parker, William 

( . Rust. 
Gardens: —Richard M. Saltonstall, Chairman. John S. Ames, 

William Nicholson, Charles Sander. ( !harles H. Tenney. 
Library: — Charles S. Sargent, Chairman. Ernest R. Dane. 

Nathaniel T. Kidder. 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Lectures and Publications: — Fred A. Wilson, Chairman, Thomas 

Allen, John K. M. L. Farquhar. 
Children's Gardens: — Henry S. Adams, Chairman, Dr. Harris 

Kennedy, Miss Margaret A. Rand, Mrs. W. Rodman 

Peabody, James Wheeler. 

February 12. Communications from Henry A. Dreer, Inc., The 
New England Nurserymen's Association, and the Elliott Nursery 
Company were presented requesting the Society to protest Quaran- 
tine Order No. 37 of the Federal Horticultural Board. It was 
voted to express the Society's opposition to the order in its present 
form. 

The special committee, consisting of Messrs. Endicott, Farquhar, 
and Sargent, appointed to consider and report upon the future 
policy of the Society, presented the following report which was 
referred for further consideration to the next meeting of the Board. 



Report on the Future Policy of the Society. The sub-committee of 
the Advisory Committee of the Society appointed to suggest plans for 
extending the usefulness of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society begs 
to submit the following: 

That the Massachusetts Horticultural Society must be considered 
an educational institution is shown by the fact that the State of Massa- 
chusetts and the City of Boston allow it to hold real and personal property 
without taxation. There is, however, a feeling in this community that 
the Society is not accomplishing as much in increasing the love and knowl- 
edge of horticulture as it has the right to expect from it in return for the 
large benefits it receives from the public. 

For many years the principal educational efforts of the Society have 
taken the form of exhibitions of flowers, fruits and vegetables. It is 
doubtful if many of these exhibitions held by the Society in recent years 
have had much educational value or have been worth to the public what 
thay have cost in money and labor. Horticultural exhibitions are valuable 
when they make known to persons interested in horticulture new plants, 
fruits or vegetables, that is, plants which are not in general cultivation 
but should find a place in gardens. Exhibitions are valuable, too, when 
they contain examples of exceptionally good cultivation or artistic arrange- 
ment of material. It is doubtful, however, if prizes of a few dollars offered 
year after year for plants which have long been familiar objects in Massa- 
chusetts' greenhouses, or for six summer or winter apples, or for six heads of 
lettuce which can be found in any fruit shop or market in the city, can be 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 99 

held to improve the standard or increase the knowledge of horticulture; 
yet for years the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has spent large sums 
of money for such prizes. 

Horticultural exhibitions should not be abandoned; they can be made 
useful and stimulating, but your Committee believes that the public will be 
better instructed by a few important exhibitions than by many small ones, 
especially in a state like Massachusetts where there is not available an 
unlimited supply of material suitable for exhibition. For Massachusetts, 
although the business of the florist has been successfully developed here to 
a higher condition of efficiency probably than any other part of the country, 
is not a great nursery center, and it must be remembered that really suc- 
cessful horticultural exhibitions depend chiefly on commercial garde ners. 
It is the Veitches, the Turners, the Waterers, the Pauls, the Vilmorins, 
the Van Houttes, the Verschaffelts, the Margostans, and the Marlines. 
not the owners of private gardens, who have made possible the great flower 
shows of Europe. Recognition in these exhibitions has been the most 
effective method of advertising that nursery gardeners could obtain. It 
has been a part of their regular business to exhibit, while for the owners 
of a private garden the exhibition of plants and fruits is often a serious 
inconvenience and considerable expense. 

It has often been stated that it is impossible to stage an exhibition here 
without the inducement of money prizes. This is probably true in the 
case of those members of the Society whose interest in it is in the few dollars 
they can obtain in the form of prizes rather than in a desire to aid the 
Society in performing its duty to the community. It should not be for- 
gotten, however, that no prizes were offered at the four most successful 
exhibitions given under the auspices of the Society — the Hunnewell 
exhibition of Rhododendrons on Boston Common, the exhibition which 
inaugurated the opening of the present hall, the outdoor exhibition of 
June, 1917, and the March exhibition of 1918. Their success was duo to 
the public spirit of members of the Society who devoted time, money and 
effort to the uplifting of the horticulture of the state. We believe that 
members of the Society can always be found to make possible occasional 
exhibitions worthy the name of the Society. 

The Society, if it is to accomplish what is expected of it, should not 
confine its educational efforts to holding exhibit ions. It should be in a 
position to cooperate actively with similar societies throughout the state; 
it should teach the best methods of cultivation by actual demonstration 
wherever in the state there is a demand for such demonstration. It 
might well aid its members and the public with advice which would enable 
them successfully to control the insects and diseases which endanger their 
crops. It is believed that the production of vegetables and fruits can be 

greatly increased in the state by the drainage of lands which now unim- 
proved could be made to yield great crops of vegetables for almost an 
indefinite period. Much land in the state is only partly productive on 
account of want of moisture and such land can be greatly increased in 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

value by irrigation. These are subjects in which a body of intelligent 
citizens like the members of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
should have some voice and exert some influence. The Society might well 
exert its influence also to secure a better understanding and better care of 
the parks and other public grounds of the state. 

The library of the Society contains one of the largest and best collections 
of books relating to horticulture and kindred subjects in the world. Your 
Committee believes that it would be of more general value if the members 
of the Society realized that books could be borrowed from the library for 
their use at home, and we suggest that the librarian be instructed to give 
greater publicity to the library and to inform members how they can 
borrow its books. A monthly Bulletin of the additions to the library 
should be sent to members and to other horticultural societies in the state. 

Attempts have been made for many years to increase the educational 
importance of the Society by courses of free lectures. Some of the lectures 
have been valuable but the money available for this purpose has not been 
sufficient to secure always the best men for this purpose. Your Committee 
believes that better results can be obtained by reducing the number of 
lectures in these courses, and by increasing the amount of the honorarium 
offered the speakers. 

The suggestions which we have made will, if they are carried out suc- 
cessfully, require the efficient, energetic and intelligent efforts of the 
Society. 

Its affairs have always been managed by committees, and it is a fact 
which few business men will dispute that the highest efficiency is not se- 
cured by committee management. Institutions, both educational and 
commercial, which have been managed by one man have always been the 
most successful; and your Committee believes that if the general manage- 
ment of the Society could be put in charge of one man directly responsible 
to the Board of Trustees he would be able gradually to inaugurate the 
plans for more active educational work which your Committee recom- 
mends. Such a man we believe would be able to unite in one common 
aim all the horticultural interests in the state, devise new methods of 
instruction and gradually convert the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
from a local institution into a University of Horticulture in the broadest 
sense of the word capable of good which would be felt far beyond the 
borders of the state. 

William C. Endicott 
(Signed) C. S. Sargent 

John K. M. L. Farquhar 



REPORT OF HOARD OF TRUSTEES 101 

Other votes were adopted as follows: 

That a committee consisting of Messrs. Saltonstall, Allen, and 
Farquhar be appointed to represent the Society in matters of 
horticultural and agricultural legislation and public policy with 
authority to employ assistance when necessary. 

To amend Act of Incorporation Mass. Special Laws, ]si_ ,, >, 
Chapter 22, Pages SI 4 and 815, so that it will read: — To lay and 
collect assessments on members in such sums as shall be decided 
from time to time by the Trustee s. 

To amend the By-laws as follows: — 

That Section IX, Clause (7) which reads: 

They shall arrange for six or more exhibitions of flowers, plants, 
fruits, and vegetables in each year, and shall have the entire charge 
of all arrangements for conducting the same. Such exhibitions 
may be arranged for by them not more than three years in advance 
and shall be announced each year at the annual meeting of the 
Society. 

Be amended so as to read: 

They shall arrange for such exhibitions of flowers, plants, fruits, 
and vegetables in each year as they may deem desirable, and shall 
have the entire charge of all arrangements for conducting the same. 
Such exhibitions may be arranged for by them not more than three 
years in advance and shall be announced each year at the annual 
meeting of the Society. They may also adopt such other methods 
for promoting the interest in horticulture as they may deem ad- 
visable. The proposed amendments to the By-laws were referred 
for action by the Society at the next annual meeting. 

That the President be authorized to appoint a committer to 
study and report on systems of land drainage and a scheme for 
bringing them to the attention of the public. 

That a committee be appointed with full powers to consider the 

question of applying to the CoUXtfl in regard to the payment of the 
income of certain Trust Funds, the terms of which bequests are 
obsolete. Referred to the Legislative Committee. 

That no exhibitions of plants, flowers, t'rui t -. and vegetables 
in the future be allowed in the Society's Building without the ap- 
proval of the President, Vice-President, and Secretary! 

That Messrs. Farquhar, Roland, and Sargent be appointed a 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

committee to consider and report on the Schedule of Prizes and 
Exhibitions for the year 1920. 

April 30. Mr. Farquhar reported that the protest of the Society 
against the recently adopted Quarantine Order No. 37 had been 
forwarded to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington. 

The recommendation of the Advisory Committee concerning 
an exhibition of orchids and other plants in March, 1920, was 
approved and adopted together with an appropriation of $5,000 
for the same. 

A further appropriation, not exceeding $2,500, to include the 
income of the special prize funds of the Society, was voted for other 
exhibitions in the year 1920. It was voted also that the exhibitions 
of that year shall not exceed six in number. It was voted to refer 
the matter of publicity of the March Exhibition to the Advisory 
Committee with full power to act. 

The matter of the report of the special committee on the future 
policy of the Society, presented at the previous meeting, together 
with the suggestions of President Endicott in his inaugural address 
was referred for further consideration to the Advisory Committee. 

October 20. The special committee consisting of Messrs. Allen, 
Farquhar, and Sargent, appointed by the President to prepare a 
list of nominations of the standing committees of the Society for 
the year 1920, presented through Mr. Farquhar the following list 
which was approved and adopted : 



Committees for the Year 1920. 

Finance: — Walter Hunnewell, Chairman, Richard M. Saltonstall, 

Stephen M. Weld. 
Membership : — Thomas Allen, Thomas Roland, Edwin S. Webster. 
Prizes and Exhibitions: — Thomas Allen, Chairman, Duncan 

Finlayson, T. D. Hatfield, James Wheeler, Ernest H. 

Wilson. 
Plants and Flowers: — Samuel J. Goddard, Chairman, Douglas 

Eccleston, Julius Heurlin, Donald McKenzie, Thomas 

Roland. 



REPORT OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES 103 

Fruits: — Edward B. Wilder, Chairman, Walter H. Golby, Isaac 
H. Locke, James Methven, John E. Thayer. 

Vegetables: — William X. Craig, Chairman, Edward Parker, 

William C. Rust. 
Gardens: — Richard M. Saltonstall, Chairman, John S. Ames, 

Charles W. Moseley, William Nicholson, Charles 

Sander. 
Library: — Charles S. Sargent, Chairman, Ernest B. Dane, 

Nathaniel T. Kidder. 
Lectures and Publications: — Fred A. Wilson, Chairman, Thomas 

Allen, John K. M. L. Farquhar. 
Children's Gardens: — James Wheeler, Chairman, Miss Marian 

R. Case, Dr. Harris Kennedy, Miss Margaret A. Rand. 



James Wheeler was appointed Superintendent of Exhibitions 
at a salary of $300. 

A copy of the Schedule of Prizes and Exhibitions for the year 
L920, as prepared by the Committee on Frizes and Exhibitions, 
was presented for the consideration of the Hoard. It provided 
for ten exhibitions during the year earning an appropriation of 
18,500, of which amount 81,000 was a special contribution for four 
exhibitions provided for by Miss Marian R. ( !ase and to be entered 
under the heading of Ilillcrest Farm Frizes. It was voted to ap- 
prove the Schedule as presented by the committee. 

An appropriation of $300 was voted for the Exhibition of the 
Products of ( Children's Gardens in 1920, the appropriation to include 
whatever amount may be offered for this purpose 1>\ tin- State 
I >epartmen1 of Agriculture. 

The special committee on the award of the George Robert White 
Medal of Honor for the year 1919 reported the name of Vilmorin- 
Andrieux Co. of Paris, Prance, Mr. Farquhar in presenting the 
report stated that t his firm of seedsmen had done a great work in 
the introduction of improved form- <>f garden plants and \ egetables. 
They were also deserving of this honor for supply Is <>t \ i 

tables and flowers during the past lr\\ years, thus making them 
available in this country in the absence <>t other sources of supply 
on account of the war, The recommendation of the commil 



- JUTJMA - 

for the award of th^ ge 3 -r: White Medal for 1919 

approved. 

Mr. Hunnewell i - >ted To ex: 

appreciative thain. 1 larian R. .illcrest Farm, 

ion. for her generous offer of Si. 000 for four additional exhibi- 
ts during: 1 >on of 

The following named pe' ected to corresponding 

meml>ership in th- - - phiu Joseph 3 Yerrieres- 

le-1- Franc- Williams Gorran. Cornwall. I 

land; 1" >rgt Holford. Tetbury, Gloucestershire, 

Englan 5 Edmund G. Loder, Bt.. Horsham. 5 . England; 

M. E tiger* - el, Paris, Fran 

Mr. Saltonstall. to whom was referred the matter of proposed 
amendmer" i and By-laws of th- made a 

report recommending that these proposed amendmei laid 

i for another year. 

William P. Rich, 

iary. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PRIZES AND 
EXHIBITIONS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

By James Wheeler, Chairman. 



The work of this Society last year with the demonstration garden 
and instructors was a great success and did much towards creating 
a lasting interest in home gardening. 

It seems very important that our Society should have an exhibi- 
tion at least every other Saturday so that there may be an oppor- 
tunity for any one having new or rare plants, flowers, fruits, or 
vegetables to bring them here for the committee to examine and 
for the public to see when they are at their best. 

This year Mr. Albert C. Burrage made a display of orchids at 
the Fruit and Vegetable Show in September that would have been 
appreciated by thousands but was seen only by very few as there 
were no prizes offered to bring flower lovers to the exhibition. The 
same exhibitor made a wonderful display of ( 'ypripediums at the 
annual election of officers, there being no exhibition in November 
at which they could be shown. They were seen by about thirty 
members. 

The School Children's exhibition attracts the most competition 
of any show in the year. In some instances there have been as 
many as eighty entries in one class. Each year shows marked 
improvement both in interest and in the quality of productions. 

When these children reach the age of I 8 J ears we shall have to drop 
them if there is no opportunity for us to retain their interest by 
having frequent exhibitions and classes in which they may compete. 
If these summer exhibits are dropped all our previous efforts will 
have been in vain. 

The Hoard of Directors appropriated $7,500 for the Committee 
on Prises and Inhibitions to make the l^-'O schedule, with instruc- 
tion that S">,bMM) be used for the Orchid Exhibition in March and 
that the number of exhibition- be limited to si\ for the J ear. Your 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

committee was very much opposed to the small number of exhibi- 
tions for we all felt that there was need of even more than we had 
last year. Your Chairman, speaking to Miss Marian R. Case, 
one of the exhibitors who stood so loyally by our Society during the 
year 1918 when no money prizes were given, told of our disappoint- 
ment at having to omit some of the exhibitions and Miss Case 
immediately said she would contribute $1,000. The money was 
accepted by the Board of Directors who instructed that four more 
exhibitions be added to the schedule. This has been done and the 
schedule has been accepted by the Board of Directors and is nearly 
ready for distribution. 

The exhibitions the past year have shown marked improvement 
both in the number of exhibitors and in attendance. There was 
great interest shown by amateur growers. The war gardens 
especially aroused enthusiasm and taught many how to raise fresh 
vegetables and flowers. 



James Wheeler 
Robert Cameron 
William N. Craig 
Duncan Finlayson 
T. D. Hatfield 



Committee 

on Prizes 

and Exhibitions. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AM) 
FLOWERS FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

By William Anderson. Chairman. 



The report of your committee must necessarily be brief owing 
to the elimination of plants and flowers from the Schedule at what 
have been usually regarded m> the principal shows of the season, 
the March and November Exhibitions. Tins was considered 
necessary by the management ol the Society on account of unsettled 
industrial conditions, high cost of labor, and the curtailment in 
production of plants and flowers on many of the large estates near 
Boston. 

Manx rare and valuable orchids have been exhibited during the 
year, Albert C. Burrage (Douglas Eccleston, Superintendent) 
being the principle exhibitor. Mr. Burrage is rapidly developing 
the largest private collection of orchids in this country. 

At the Inaugural Meeting, January 10, Nathaniel T. Kidder, 
Milton (William Martin, gardener) exhibited a hybrid Primula, a 
cross between Malacoides and Chinensis, distinct in foliage and 
with larger flowers than Malacoides. It was awarded Honorable 
Mention. On January 25 Duncan Finlavson was awarded a 
Silver Medal for a plant of Cymbidium Queen Alexandra, one 
flower spike carrying thirteen blossoms. 

On March 8-9 the most noteworthy display came from Albert C. 
Burrage who put up a fine exhibit of orchids covering over 500 
square feet of space. Included in the group were numerous large 
specimens of Cattleya Trianae, Cattleya Schroderae, and various 
hybrids, also a fine collection of Cymbidiums, Phalaenopsis, 
( ypripediums, Lycastes, Oncidiums, Odontoglossums, Angrae- 
cums, Yandas, and other genera. A Gold Medal was awarded 
for this fine display. John L. Smith was awarded a Silver Medal 
for the beautiful Brasso-( attleya Menda Alba and a similar award 
went to F. J. Dolansky for four plants of Cattleya Trianae Alba. 

107 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

At the May Exhibition James Marlborough, Topsfield, was 
awarded a Cultural Certificate for a splendid vase of carnation 
Laddie and the Blue Hill Nurseries had on exhibition a plant of 
Thuva oeeidentalis Gwvnn's Variety, a new Thuva of undoubted 
merit which originated at the Blue Hill Nurseries. Later in the 
year the Silver Medal offered bv the Society of American Florists 
for a new or meritorious plant was awarded to this variety. 

At the Iris Exhibition, June 7-8, there was a good display of 
irises staged by J. K. Alexander, George N. Smith, H. F. Chase, and 
Miss Grace Sturtevant. A table of rhododendrons was shown by 
T. C. Thurlow's Sons and a large collection of hardy herbaceous 
plants by Win. N. Craig. T. C. Thurlow's Sons were awarded 
a Silver Medal under the Hunnewell Fund No. 3 for the best new 
hardy rhododendron grown two or more years in the open. The 
new variety was named for William P. Rich. 

The Peony Exhibition, June 14-15, was one of the season's best 
exhibits and was largely attended. J. K. Alexander of East 
Bridgewater had 150 varieties, some of the best being Innocence, 
Felix Crousse, Monsieur Dupont, and Flashlight. R. & J. Farquhar 
& Co. was also a large exhibitor. In the competitive classes T. C. 
Thurlow's Sons were the heaviest prize winners. E. J. Shaylor 
showed some handsome seedlings which received Honorable 
Mention. A similar award went to R. & J. Farquhar & Co. for 
seedlings. The American Peony Society's medal for the best 
collection of herbaceous peonies was won by T. C. Thurlow's Sons. 

The Rose Show was held June 21-22. A. J. Fish of New Bed- 
ford was the principal exhibitor, showing many fine varieties of 
climbing roses, the most striking of which was the Silver Moon. 
Mr. Fish was awarded as Silver Medal for his exhibit. Other 
exhibitors of roses were John 15. Wills, Hillcrest Farm, A. L. 
Stephen, David Tyndall, and William C. Winter. T. C. Thurlow's 
Sons put up a fine exhibit of peonies, the most notable of which 
were the Milton Hill and Walter Faxon. 

The Sweet Pea Exhibition was held July 5-6 during the worst 
heat wave experienced in many years. W. G. Taylor of Newport, 
R. I., was the only exhibitor. He showed some splendid flowers. 
Collections of native plants were shown by Hillcrest Farm and Mrs. 
F. C. Upham. 



REPORT Of COMMITTEE ON PLANTS USD FLOWERS 109 

The Gladiolus Exhibition, August 9 -10, was a Rotable one. 
Flowers of splendid quality filled the Main Hall. H. E. Meader, 

Dover, X. II.. and S. E. Spencer of Woburn exhibited magnificent 
•lips of the best varieties, prominent among which were Mrs. 

Dr. Norton. Mrs. Prank Pendleton, Ida Van, Rosea Superba, 
trsdale, Myrtle, Lily White. Bine Bell, Golden Girl, Mrs. Watt, 

Diener's White, and Panama. 
The Boston Cut Flower Co. arranged a table with gladioli in 

vases and baskets and was awarded a Silver Medal. A. E. 
Kimderd, Goshen, Indiana, exhibited a number of choice varieties 

among which were Peach Rose and Salmon Beauty, both of which 
were awarded Certificates of Merit. H. E. Meader received a 
similar award for Lilac Royal. Eugene X. Fischer, Jamaica Plain, 
exhibited some fine 9eedlings, the variety Mrs. Frederick C. Peters, 
a large white Mower with rich crimson-maroon throat receiving a 
Certificate of Merit. B. Hammond Tracy, Wenham, received 
Honorable Mention for a fine display of Primnlinus hybrids. C. 
W. Brown had many fine seedlings, (i. X. Smith was first for 
twelve varieties of herbaceous phloxes. 

The Dahlia Show, September 1 3—14, was one of the largest and 
most popular of the year. The large exhibition hall was well filled 
with exhibits. The tables of dahlias and gladioli, staged by the 
Fottler, Fiske, Rawson Co. and that of J. K. Alexander were of 
splendid quality and were well staged. Each exhibitor was 
awarded a Silver Medal. Honorable Mention was awarded W. A. 
Manda for dahlia Mandaiana and also to J. K. Alexander for 
seedling Peony-flowered dahlia Lavender Beauty, seedling Peony- 
flowered dahlia Miss Lymena Baxter, seedling (actus dahlia Alice 
B. Rand, and to W. I). Hathaway for display of dahlias. E. B. 
Dane (Donald McKenzie, gardener) was awarded a Silver Medal 
for a plant of Sophro-Cattleya Blaekii (Sophronitis Grandiflora X 
Cattleva Hardvana). 

At the Fruit and Vegetable Exhibition held September 25-28, 
Albert C. Burrage put up a magnificent group of orchids in the 
Lecture Hall, covering 500 square feet of space. The group was 
tastefully arranged with a background of palms and ferns and 
masses of Oncidiums, Phalaenopsis, Vandas, Cattleyas, and many 
other genera were very effectively used in the arrangement. A 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Gold Medal was awarded the group and Certificates of -Merit for 
Cypripedium Sir Red vers Buller and for Laelio-Cattleya Harold. 
The Blue Hill Nurseries had on exhibition a nice collection of hardy 
asters and other perennials. 

On October IS, Albert C. Burrage placed on exhibition a very 
rare and beautiful orchid plant in flower for which he was awarded 
a Gold Medal. It was Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya The Baroness, a 
cross between Brasso-Cattleya Leemanniae and Laelio-Cattleya 
Ophir. It is the only specimen of this hybrid in the United States 
and was publicly exhibited for the first time. The flower is a rich 
golden yellow with light purple markings at the base of the beauti- 
fully fringed labellum. Mr. Burrage exhibited also a specimen of 
Cattleva Moira Alba, a cross between Cattleva Mantinii and 

* ■ 

Cattleva Fabia Alba. Its sepals and petals are pure white, lip 
crimson with the yellow throat markings of Cattleva Dowiana. 
This was awarded a Silver Medal. 

On November S, in connection with the Fruit and Vegetable 
Show, a few exhibits of plants were made. Win. C. Rust was 
awarded a Silver Medal for a well-flowered plant of begonia Pink 
Perfection. Peter Arnott exhibited a plant of Cypripedium Doris 
for which he was awarded a Silver Medal. A similar award went 
to Donald McKenzie for Cypripedium Dreadna light. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Society, November 15, Albert ( \ 
Burrage put on exhibition an interesting collection of Cypripedium^ 
of numerous species and hybrids. It was awarded a Silver Medal. 
Mr. Burrage exhibited also a plant of Laelio-Cattleya Alice Bur- 
rage. It is a cross between Laelio-Cattleya Lustre and Laelio- 
Cattleya Rubens. This was also awarded a Silver Medal. 

William Ander- 

Douglas Ecclest< imittec 

ll'L J. GODDARD Oil 

Donald McKenzie Hants arid Flowers. 
William Sim 






AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 111 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS AND 

FLOWERS. 

1919. 

May Exhibition. 
May 17 and 18. 

John Allen French Fund. 

Wild Flowers: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 

Gratuity: — T. E. Proctor, display of flowering plants. 



Ihis Exhibition. 

Junk 7 and 8. 
H. II. Hunneufell Fund, No. •>. 
Rhododendrons, 12 varieties: 1st and 2d, T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 

John Allen French Fund. 

Irises, 24 vases: 1st, H. F. Chase; 2d, G. N. Smith. 12 vases: 1st, 
J. K. Alexander. Hardy HERBACEOUS Flowers (For non-com- 
mercial growers only): 1st, Faulkner Farm, 

Peony EXHIBITION. 

June 14 and 15. 

John Allen French Fuml. 

Herbaceous Peonies, 20 varieties, double: 1st. T. C, Thurlow's Sons, 

Inc.: 2d. 11. F. Chase. 12 varieties, donNc: i^t. T. ('. Thurlow's 
Sons, Inc.; 2d, .1. K.Alexander. Specimen bloom, double: l-t.(; \ 
Smith, Therese; 2<1. H. F, Chase, (iermainc Bigot. 12 varieties, 

single: 1st, T. C. Thurlow's Sons. Inc. <> Varieties, double, White: 

1st, T. (\ Thurlow's Sons. Inc.; 2d. Mrs. I> W. McKissock. R 
Pink: 1st, T. C. Thurlow's Sons, In.' : \!>\. Mr- D. W. McKissock. 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Salmon Pink: 1st, T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc.; 2d, Mrs. D. W. 
McKissock. Red or Crimson: 1st, T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc.; 2d, 
Mrs. D. W. McKissock. 
Gratuity: — G. P. Gardner, display of Hydrangeas. 



Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 21 and 22. 

John Allen French Fund. 

Roses, Climbing and Pillar: 1st, A. J. Fish. Hybrid Tea, 24 varieties: 
1st, J. B. Wills. 12 varieties, 1st, J. B. Wills; 2d, Hillcrest Farm. 
6 blooms, Pink: 1st, David Tyndall. Red: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, 
Robert Seaver. Yellow: 1st, David Tyndall; 2d, J. B. Wills. Sweet 
Williams: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, Miss Cornelia Warren. Hardy 
Herbaceous Flowers, 25 vases: 1st, Faulkner Farm. 

John C. Chaffin Fund. 



Roses, Hybrid Perpetual, 12 varieties: 1st, W. C. Winter. 6 varieties: 
1st, J. B. Wills; 2d, A. L. Stephen. 6 blooms White (For amateurs 
only): 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, David Tyndall. Pink: 1st, A. L. 
Stephen; 2d, Robert Seaver. Red: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, Robert 
Seaver. 
Gratuities: — Miss Cornelia Warren, collection of Roses; J. B. Wills, 

collection of Roses; Faulkner Farm, Herbaceous Peonies. 



Sweet Pea Exhibition. 

July 5 and 6. 

John Allen French Fund. 

Sweet Peas, 25 sprays, White: 1st, W. G. Taylor, Constance Hinton. 
Crimson or Scarlet: 1st, W. G. Taylor, King Edward. Deep Pink: 
1st, W. G. Taylor, Hercules. Lavender: 1st, W. G. Taylor, Florence 
Nightingale. Purple: 1st, W. G. Taylor, Royal Purple. Any other 
color: 1st, W. G. Taylor, King Manoel. Best vase (Commercial 
growers excluded) White: 1st, W. G. Taylor, Constance Hinton. 
Dark Pink: 1st, W. G. Taylor, Hercules. Lavender: 1st, W. G. 
Taylor, Florence Nightingale. Scarlet: 1st, W. G. Taylor, King 
Edward. Any other color: 1st, W. G. Taylor, King Manoel. Iris 
Kaempferi: 1st, Miss Cornelia Warren. Hollyhocks, 24 blooms: 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AXJ) FLOWERS 113 

1st, Miss Cornelia Warren; 2d, W. C. Winter. 12 spikes: 1st, C. W. 
Walker; 2d, Faulkner Farm. Wild Flowers: 1st, Hillerest Farm; 
2d, Mrs. F. C. Upham. 
Gratuity: — E. A. Clark, Larkspur and Gladiolus. 



Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 

August 9 and 10. 

John Allen French Fund. 

Perennial Phloxes, 12 varieties: 1st, G. X. Smith. 6 trusses: 1st, 
G. N. Smith. Gladioli, 6 varieties; White: 1st, A. L. Stephen. 
Pink: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, E. M. Powers. Red: 1st, A. L. Stephen. 
Yellow: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, Faulkner Farm. Lavender or 
Mauve: 1st, A. L. Stephen. 6 spikes, any Primulinus Hybrid: 1st 
and 2d, Faulkner Farm. Best seedling Gladiolus: E. M. Brewer. 

Dahlia Exhibition. 

September 13 and 14. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. '■ 

Dahlias, Show and Fancy: 1st. W. D. Hathaway; 2d, C. L. Ailing;. 
Cactus: 1st, C. L. Ailing;; 2d, A. E. Doty. Decorative: 1st, R. W. 
Clark; 2d, T. J. Murphy. Peony-flowered: 1st, J. K. Alexander; 
2d, C. L. Ailing. Pompon: 1st, C. L. Allen; 2d, A E. Doty. One 
vase, any variety: 1st, J. E. Jones; 2d, T. J. Murphy. 

John Allen French Fund. 
Wild Flowkrs: 1st, Mrs. F. ('. Upham. 

Fruit and Vegetable Exhibition. 

SefTEMBEB 26 28 

Gratuity: — H. L. F. Naber, collection <>f wild flowers. 

Autumn Exhibition ok Fruits \\n Vegetables. 

November 8 lot 9. 
Gratuity: — E. A. Clark, large bloom single-stem Chrysanthemums. 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Gold Medal. 

March 8. A. C. Burrage, group of orchids in flower. 
July 14. T. D. Hatfield, Rhododendron Miss Louisa Hunnewell. 
September 25. A. C. Burrage, exhibit of orchids and foliage plants. 
October 18. A. C. Burrage, Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya The Baroness (Brasso- 
Cattleya Leemanniae X Laelio-Cattleya Ophir). 



Silver Medal. 

January 25. Weld Garden, Cymbidium Queen Alexandra. 
March 8. A. W. Preston, Brasso-Cattleya Menda alba. 

" " F. J. Dolansky, Cattleya Trianae alba. 
May 24. A. C. Burrage, Cattleya Mossiae Mrs. Alice Burrage. 
June 7. T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., Rhododendron Wm. P. Rich. 
June 21. A. J. Fish, collection of climbing Roses. 

" " T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., display of Peonies. 
August 9. S. E. Spencer, display of Gladioli. 
" " H. E. Meader, 

" " Boston Cut Flower Company, arrangement of Gladioli in 
baskets and vases. 
September 13. E. B. Dane, Sophro-Cattleya Blackii (Sophronitis grandi- 
flora X Cattleya X Hardy ana). 
" J. K. Alexander, display of Dahlias and Gladioli. 
" Fottler, Fiske, Rawson Company, display of Dahlias and 
Gladioli. 
October 18. A. C. Burrage, Cattleya Moira alba (C. Mantinii X C. Fabia 

alba. 
November 8. W. C. Rust, Begonia Pink Perfection. 
" E. S. Webster, Cymbidium Doris. 
" " E. B. Dane, Cypripedium Dreadnaught (C. Leeanum 

Clinkaberryanum X C. insigne Harefield Hall). 
" 15. A. C. Burrage, Laelio-Cattleya Alice Burrage (Laelio- 
Cattleya Lustre X L.-C. rubens). 
" A. C. Burrage, group of Cypripediums, species and varieties. 



Silver Medal offered by the Society of American Florists. 
May 17. Blue Hill Nurseries, Seedling Thuya occidentalis Gwynns var. 

Silver Medal offered by the American Peony Society. 

June 14. T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., for the best collection of Herbaceous 
Peonies. 



AWARDS FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS 



115 



Bronze Medal. 
August 9. J. K. Alexander, .display of Gladioli, Phlox, and Dahlias. 

First Class Certificate of Merit. 

March 8. Strout's, Carnation Maine Sunshine. 
August 9. A. E. Kunderd, Gladiolus primulinus Salmon Beauty. 
" " " " Gladiolus Peach Rose. 

" " E. N. Fischer, seedling Gladiolus Mrs. Frederick C. Peters. 
" " H. E. Meader, seedling Gladiolus Lilac Royal. 
" 30. E. N. Fischer, Gladiolus Priscilla. 
September 25. A. C. Burrage, Cypripedium Sir Redvers Buller. 

" " " " Cattleya X Harold (C. Gaskelliana X C. 

Warsceuriczii). 

Cultural Certificate. 

May 17. James Marlborough, Carnation Laddie. 
August 9. A. L. Stephen, table of Gladioli. 
" S. E. Spencer, display of Gladioli. 



Honorable Mention. 

January 11. X. T. Kidder, Primula nialamides Hybrid. 
May 24. A. C. Burrage, Ejridendrum onddioides. 
June 7. Miss Grace Sturtevant, Iris Dream. 
" " " " " " Valkyrie. 

" H " " ■ " Jennet t Dean. 

■ 14. E. J. Shaylor, seedling Peonies Mildred, Luella Shaylor, and 
No. 75. 

R. & J. Farquhar *V: Co., collection of seedling Peonies. 
• " " " " " ■ " display of Peonies. 

" " G. X. Smith, collection of Peonies. 

T. C. Thurlow'fl Sons, Inc., collection of Peoni. 
" " J. K. Alexander, display of Peonies. 
" 21. R. M. Saltonstall, Foxglovrs. 
August <>. T. M. Proctor, Gladioli. 

Cedar Acres, (B. 11. Tracy), display of Qlodioltu primulin 
E. N. Fischer, Beedling Gladiolus Henry C. Qoehl. 

Iling Gladiolus primulintu Pr<l Start. 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

August 9. C. W. Brown, seedling Gladiolus No. 1716 D. 
« a « « « « No 1730 D . 

8 S. E. Spencer, " ■ No. 741. 

a « « « « « No 885 _ 

■ " " " " " No. 102. 

" 30. E. N. Fischer, seedling Gladiolus Mrs. A. G. Nelson. 
September 13. W. A. Manda, Dahlia Mandaiana. 

" " J. K. Alexander, seedling Cactus Dahlia Alice B. Rand. 

■ ■ ■ ■ " " Peony-flowered Dahlia Miss Ly- 

mena Baxter. 
" ■ " " " Peony-flowered Dahlia Laven- 

der Beauty. 
■ " " B " Decorative Dahlia Wm. Stark 

Smith. 
" " W. D. Hathaway, display of Dahlias. 

" 25. Blue Hill Nurseries, exhibit of hardy Asters and other 

flowers. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS 
FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

By Edward B. Wilder, Chairman. 



The Fruit Committee ia glad to report a decided improvement 

in t lit' display of fruits during the year. 

Although thr " war conditions, shortage of labor and poor trans- 
portation" noted in our report for 1918 still continue, the two 
latter problems being even more acute than at that time, the 
growers of fruit have rallied bravely to the call of the Society in 
the enlarged Schedule and money prizes offered and have more 
than tripled the prizes awarded last year. 

This fact is largely due to the inducements offered at the Fruit 
and Vegetable Exhibition, SeptembeT 25 28, for which this Society 
is greatly indebted to the Massachusetts State Department of 
Agriculture which offered (600 in money prizes for fruits and 
vegetables. 

The display of strawberries at the Exhibition June 21-22, though 
not large was of good quality. Richard M. Saltonstall of Chestnut 
Hill, Hillcrest Farm (Miss Marian R. Case) Weston, and W. C. 
Cooper of Weston having the beat exhibits. 

There was no fruit of special note at the Sweet Pea Exhibition, 
July 5-6, or the Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition, August 9-10, 
with the exception at the latter show of a fine display of branches 
from peach trees in full fruit by the Faulkner Farm, Brookline, 
Win. X. Craig, Superintendent. 

The Fruit and Vegetable Exhibition scheduled to take place 
September 11-14, in conjunction with the Dahlia Exhibition was 
postponed to September 25-28, the former date being altogether 
too early for most of the fruit and vegetables to have reached 
maturity. At this show 125 money prizes were offered, all awards 
being made for merit. The specimens of fruit were excellent 
and the display of native grapes was one of the finest seen in the 

117 



MA— - LTURa - ^TT 

hall fo: d Bauernfeind of Medford took eight F 

Prices inchiding the First Prize for collection of six varieties of 

Kendall of Atlantic. Charier W. Libby of Medford, and 
Oir ilso niade large displays and : 

many I ks E. R. Pierce of Farms exhibited 

nne bund. gng :"ovnundt g 

ed Honorable Mention for 

five var . _ _ ;»es. H. A. Cook 

my also had a fine i _ _ pes 

and your committee was particulariy nil i in his seedling 

- 'hilip and Worden. which seems 

■e a grape of great promise. Mr. Cook was awarded a Certifi- 

nt for this grape. 

e apples «ere excellent and your committee was encouraged 

3 new i ake the largest number of prizes for this 

Dexter T. Dodd of Hudson took tih Prize for the best 

■ apples, the best Mcintosh apples, and six 1 

PrL ndividual plates of apples. Parker Brothers of Fiskdale, 

•ehind him with I -ixe for apples any other 

var: e Blue Pearmain. and First Prize for six individual 

Dahl of Roxbury won First Prize for collection of eight 
and Edward A. Clark of Jamaica Plain, I 
Prize for best four v; -ame fruit. The general exhibit 

jidividua] rter than usual. 

. Hillcresi Farm. *>k 

lection of six vai f app st Prize for 

collection of thre-: rst Prize for individual pla: 

apples. Also at: e of apples aixanged for decorative effect 

and ar. R. Goodnough of 

: 

In summing up the work of the year your committee feels that 

large Fruit and Yegeta -■: _ -_ N has 

dec ond a doubt that the money priz- :e a 

. else can do to forward the display of fruit 
. ing a fair compensation to the originator and gr- 
who cannot afford to give the time needed to grow, transport, and 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX FRUITS 



119 



set up a display without this assistance; and much of our most 
valued fruit has been originated by such men. 



Edward B. Wilder 
William X. Craig 
Isaac H. Locke 
James Methven 



Committee 

on 

Fruits. 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 

1919. 

Inaugural Meeting Exhibition. 

January 11. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 
Apples: 1st, Hillcrest Farm, Baldwin. 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 
June 21 and 22. 

Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 

Strawberries, 6 plates: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 1 plate, any variety with 
foliage: 1st, R. M. Saltonstall; 2d, Dr. F. S. DeLue. 1 plate Barry- 
more: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Golden Gate: 1st, W. C. Cooper. Mar- 
shall: 1st, R. M. Saltonstall. Senator Dunlap: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 
Any other variety: 1st, W. C. Cooper; 2d, Louis Graton. Cherries: 
1st, F. W. Dahl." 
Gratuities: — Louis Graton, St. Martin Strawberries; Dr. F. S. DeLue, 

Judith Strawberries. 

Sweet Pea Exhibition. 
July 5 and 6. 

Benjamin V . French Fund, No. 2. 

Cherries, any Red variety: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, Faulkner Farm. 
Any Black variety: 1st, Mrs. R. Goodnough; 2d, Faulkner Farm. 
Any White or Yellow variety: 1st, Mrs. M. J. Merrill; 2d, Faulkner 
Farm. Currants, 3 varieties: 1st, John Bauernfeind. 1 variety: 
1st, John Bauernfeind. Gooseberries, 3 varieties: 1st, John 
Bauernfeind; 2d, W. C. Winter. Any White or Yellow variety: 
1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, W. C Winter. Raspberries, 4 varieties: 
1st, Hillcrest Farm. Any Red variety: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, 
Mrs. R. Goodnough. 
Gratuity: — Mrs. R. Goodnough, basket of small fruits. 






awards for fruits 121 

Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 

August 9 and 10. 

Benjamin V. French Fund, No. 8. 

Apples, Summer, collection of 3 varieties: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 12 speci- 
mens, any variety: 1st, Hillcrest Farm, Sweet Bough. Peaches, 3 
varieties: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, Parker Bros. 1 variety: 1st, 
Hillcrest Farm, Greensboro; 2d, Hillcrest Farm, Mayflower. Pears: 
1st, Mrs. Elbridge Torrey, Clapp's Favorite; 2d, Mrs. R. Goodnough, 
Clapp's Favorite. Plums, 4 varieties: 1st, Faulkner Farm. 1 
variety: 1st, Faulkner Farm, Belgian Purple; 2d, Mrs. R. Goodnough, 
Abundance. Blackberries: 1st, E. A. Clark, Agawam. Blue- 
berries: 1st, J. A. Neal. 
Gratuity: — Faulkner Farm, exhibit of Peaches on branches. 

Fruit and Vegetable Exhibition. 
September 25-28. 

Prizes Offered by the Mass. State Department of Agriculture. 

Apples, 12 specimens, Baldwin: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d, Parker Bios. 
Blue Pearmain: 1st, Parker Bros. Fall Pippin: 3d, W. C. Winter. 
Fameuse: 1st, Oliver Ames. Golden Russet: 1st, Parker Bros.; 
2d, A. P. Smith. Gravenstein: 1st, D. T. Dodd; 2d, A. P. Smith. 3d, 
G. V. Fletcher. Hubbardston: 1st, D. T. Dodd; 2d, E. A. Clark: 
3d, Oliver Ames. King: 1st, Parker Bros. Mcintosh: 1st, D. T. 
Dodd; 2d, A. P. Smith; 3d, Parker Bros. Maiden's Blush: 1st, 
T. D. Hatfield; 2d, Oliver Ames. Northern Spy: 1st, Parker Bros.; 
2d, E. A. Clark. Palmer Greening: 1st, Parker Bros. Porter: 
1st, G. V. Fletcher; 2d, Parker Bros.; 3d, A. P. Smith. Pound Sweet: 
1st, G. V. Fletcher. Roxbury Russet: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d, 
D. T. Dodd. Sutton: 1st, Oliver Ames. Tolman Sweet: 1st, D. T. 
Dodd; 2d, Parker Bros. Twenty Ounce: 1st, D. T. Dodd; 2d, E. \. 
Clark; 3d, \V. C. Winter. Yellow Bellflower: 1m. Parker Bros. 
Wealthy: 1st, A. P. Smith. Wolf River: 1st, D. T. Dodd: 2d, W. C. 
Winter. Any other variety: 1st, Oliver Ames. Rome Beauty; 2d, 
T. I) Hatfield, Cox's Pomona) 3d, D. T. Dodd. Middlesex. 80 ->p,vi- 

mens, Gravenstein: 1st, D. T. Dodd. Mcintosh: 1st. n r Dodd; 
2d, Parker Bros. Any other variety: 1st. Parker Pros.. Hlu.^ Pear- 
main. CrabApplbs, Bystop: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d, Parker Bros.; 

3d, W. C. Winter. Any other variety: 1st, W V NoRlS, Tran- 

seendant; 2d. 1\ \\ Dahl, Transcendant. Pbais, 12 specimens, 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Anjou: 1st, John Bauernf eind ; 2d, E. A. Clark; 3d, F. W. Dahi. 
Bartlett: 1st, G. V. Fletcher; 2d, F. W. Dahl. Belle Lucrative: 
1st, E. B. Wilder; 2d, F. W. Dahl. Bosc: 1st, W. G. Kendall; 2d, 
John Bauernfeind; 3d, Mrs. R. Goodnough. Louise Bonne de 
Jersey: 1st, F. W. Dahl; 2d, Mrs. M. J. Merrill; 3d, Mrs. Elbridge 
Torrey. Seckel: 1st, W. G. Kendall; 2d, D. T. Dodd; 3d, F. W. 
Dahl. Sheldon: 1st, Mrs. R. Goodnough; 2d, John Bauernfeind; 
3d, Mrs. M. J. Merrill. Any other variety: 1st, Mrs. Elbridge 
Torrey, Marie Louise; 2d, W. G. Kendall, Dana Hovey; 3d, F. W. 
Dahl, Urbaniste. Collection of pears, 8 varieties: 1st, F. W. Dahl. 
4 varieties: 1st, E. A. Clark; 2d, E. B. Wilder. Peaches, 3 varieties: 
1st, G. V. Fletcher; 2d, Parker Bros. 12 specimens, any variety: 
1st, Mrs. R. Goodnough, Hale; 2d, J. A. Neal, Elberta; 3d, G. V. 
Fletcher, Foster. Plums: 1st, Oliver Ames, October Purple; 2d, 
Oliver Ames, Satsuma; 3d, F. W. Dahl, Bradshaw. Grapes, Brigh- 
ton: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, C. W. Libby; 3d, W. G. Kendall. 
Concord: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, Oliver Ames; 3d, W. G. Kendall 
Delaware: 1st, Oliver Ames. Herbert: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, 
C. W. Libby. Moore's Diamond: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, W. G. 
Kendall; 3d, Oliver Ames. Niagara: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, 
W. G. Kendall; 3d, Oliver Ames. Quinces: 1st, E. A. Clark; 2d, 
I. H. Locke; 3d, G. V. Fletcher. Melons, Salmon-flesh: 1st, H. W. 
Hayes; 2d, Faulkner Farm; 3d, Oliver Ames. Watermelons: 1st, 
Faulkner Farm. 

Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Grapes, Salem: 1st, W. G. Kendall; 2d, John Bauernfeind. Worden: 
1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, W. G. Kendall; 3d, Mrs. R. Goodnough. 
Any other variety: 1st, John Bauernfeind, Wilder; 2d, W. G. Kendall, 
Gaertner; 3d, C. W. Libby, Lindley. Collection, 6 varieties: 1st, 
John Bauernfeind; 2d, W. G. Kendall. 

John S. Farlow Newton Horticultural Society Fund. 

Foreign Grapes, any Black variety: 1st, E. R. Peirce. 

Gratuities: — Mrs. R. Goodnough, display of native fruit; Mrs. V. J. 
Loring, basket of Grapes; Mrs. R. Goodnough, basket of Eaton Grapes; 
L. E. Crouch, seedling Peach; Oliver Ames, dish of Apples; Mrs. R. 
Goodnough, basket of Bosc Pears. 

Autumn Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables. 

November 8 and 9. 

Josiah Bradlee Fund. 

Apples, 6 varieties: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, G. V. Fletcher. 3 varieties: 
1st, Hillcrest Farm. 1 variety: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, J. R. Ness. 



AWARDS FOR FRUITS 123 



Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 1. 

Collection of fruit, arranged for decorative effect: 1st, Mrs. R. Good- 
nough. Quinces: 1st, E. A. Clark. 



Marshall P. Wilder Fund. 

Pears, collection of 6 varieties: lst,.G. V. Fletcher; 2d, F. W. Dahl. 
Collection of 3 varieties: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, E. B. Wilder. 
1 variety: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, G. V. Fletcher. 

Society's Prizes. 

Collection of native and foreign fruit, arranged for effect: 1st, 
Hillcrest Farm, a Silver Medal. 
Gratuity: — J. R. Ness, Baldwin Apples. 



First Class Certificate^of Merit. 
September 25. H. A. Cook, native seedling Grape No. 3. 

Honorable Mention. 

June 7. Hillcrest Farm, Wilfrid Wheeler Strawberry No. 7. 

" 14. " " collection of Strawberries. 

September 25. E. A. Adams, 5 varieties of seedling Grapes (King Philip X 
Worden) . 
" " H. A. Cook, collection of seedling native Grapes. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OX VEGETABLES 
FOR THE YEAR 1919. 

By John L. Smith, Chairman. 



The year 1919 has been a very successful one and particularly 
for the Committee on Vegetables. I think I may well say that we 
have not had for several years such a successful year in the exhibi- 
tion of vegetables as we have had this year. The Fall Exhibition 
was especially fine, the competitors were many, and the competition 
was keen and intelligently directed. We attribute the success of 
the exhibition of vegetables largely to the fact that money prizes 
were offered and we feel that this is a practice that should be con- 
tinued in future exhibitions. We are impressed, too, with the 
necessity of continuing efforts to stimulate interest upon the part 
of the public in the raising of vegetables. Anything that can be 
done that will add to our production of wealth we know is an eco- 
nomic benefit. The continuance of our Society can be justified by 
the benefits which it confers upon the community. We gather not 
merely for the purpose of meeting one another but more especially 
to work ourselves and interest others in devoting a part of their 
time at least to the production of essentials; this has been one of 
the purposes of our committee and we feel that our successors will 
continue the work in the same spirit. 

With the rendering of this report I close my duties as Chairman 
of the Vegetable Committee and I desire to express my deep appre- 
ciation for the fine feeling that has been shown by the other members 
of the committee towards me and also the spirit of cooperation that 
has been manifested by all of the members of the committee. I 
have found the work exceedingly interesting and at the same time 
helpful and shall always be subject to the call of any future com- 
mittee. 



John L. Smith 
Edward Parker 
Wm. ( . Rust 

1 25 



CommiiUi 

on 

I egetablcs. 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR VEGETABLES 

1919. 

Inaugural Meeting Exhibition. 

January 11. 

Mushrooms: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 

March Exhibition. 

March 8 and 9. 

Mushrooms: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, E. A. Clark. Rhubarb: 1st, 
Hillcrest Farm. 

May Exhibition. 

May 17 and 18. 

Asparagus: 1st, Oliver Ames. Cauliflower: 1st, Faulkner Farm. 
Lettuce: 1st Oliver Ames; 2d, Faulkner Farm. Collection of 
vegetables: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d, Oliver Ames. 
Gratuity: — Faulkner Farm, collection of forced vegetables. 

Iris Exhibition. 

June 7 and 8. 

John A. Lowell Fund. 

Cauliflower: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Carrots: 1st & 2d, Hillcrest Farm. 
Lettuce: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Any other vegetable: 1st, Hill- 
crest Farm, Beets; 2d, Faulkner Farm, String Beans. Collection 
of vegetables, grown in 1919: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, Faulkner 
Farm. 

Rose and Strawberry Exhibition. 

June 21 and 22. 

William J. Walker Fund. 

Beans, String: 1st & 2d, Faulkner Farm. Beets: 1st & 2d, Hillcrest 
Farm. Cabbage: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Lettuce, Cabbage: 1st & 



AWARDS FOR VEGETABLES 127 

2d, Oliver Ames. Cos or Romaine: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Peas, 1 
variety: 1st, Oliver Ames; 2d, Hillcrest Farm. Tomatoes: 1st & 2d, 
Oliver Ames. 
Gratuities: — Faulkner Farm, collection of Tomatoes; Oliver Ames, 
plate of Onions. 



Sweet Pea Exhibition. 
July 5 and 6. 

John A. Lowell Fund. 

Beans, String: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d, Hillcrest Farm. Carrots: 1st 
& 2d, Hillcrest Farm. Peas: 1st & 2d, E. A. Clark. Potatoes: 
1st, Hillcrest Farm, Uncle Gideon; 2d, Hillcrest Farm, Early Ohio. 
Tomatoes: 1st, Faulkner Farm, John Baer; 2d, Faulkner Farm, 
Carter's Sunrise. Collection of vegetables, 8 varieties: 1st, 
Hillcrest Farm. 4 varieties: 1st, J. A. Neal; 2d, E. A. Clark. 
Gratuity: — Faulkner Farm, collection of ten varieties of Tomatoes. 



Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition'. 
August 9 and 10. 

Benjamin V. French Fund, No. ■'. 

Beans, Horticultural: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. Lima: 1st & 2d, Hillcrest 
Farm. Ear, Plant: 1st, Hillcrest Farm; 2d, E. A. Clark. Onion-: 
1st, J. A. Neal; 2d, E. A. Clark. Peppers: 1st, F. W. Dahl. 
Squash: 1st, J. A. Neal. Sweet Corn: 1st, E. A. Clark; 2d, 
Hillcrest Farm. Tomatoes: 1st, J. A. Neal; 2d, Faulkner Farm. 
Collection of Vegetables, 12 varieties: 1st, Hillcrest Farm. 6 
varieties: 1st, J. A. Neal. 
Gratuities: — Hillcrest Farm, collection of Potatoes; E. A. Clark, 
Crookneek Squash. 



Dahlia EXHIBITION. 
Septbmbeb 13 am) 1 1. 
(iratuities: — J. F. Madden, display of vegetables; Mrs. Gordon Abbot, 

display of vegetabl> 



128 massachusetts horticultural society 

Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables. 
September 25-28. 
t Theodore Lyman Fund, No. 2. 

Artichokes: 1st, E. A. Clark. Brussels Sprouts: 1st, Mrs. J. W, 
Blodgett, Dobbie's Exhibition; 2d, J. A. Neal, Little Gem; 3d, E. A. 
Clark, Dobbie's Exhibition. Beans, Green string: 1st, Mrs. Stewart 
Duncan, Masterpiece; 2d, Oliver Ames, Masterpiece; 3d, Faulkner 
Farm, Sutton's Plentiful. Wax string: 1st, Oliver Ames, Pencil Pod; 
2d, J. L. Smith, Hodson Wax; 3d, E. L. Lewis. Lima: 1st, Mrs. 
J. W. Blodgett, King of the Garden; 2d, W. J. Clemson; 3d, Mrs. 
Stewart Duncan, Burpee's. Shelled Horticultural: 1st, A. L. 
Stephen, Dwarf Horticultural; 2d, Faulkner Farm, Dwarf Horti- 
cultural. Shelled Prolific Tree : 1st, Faulkner Farm. Shelled Yellow- 
eye: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 2d, Faulkner Farm; 3d, Mrs. J. W. Blodgett. 
Any other variety: 1st, A. L. Stephen, Ivory; 2d, Faulkner Farm, 
Stringless White Wax; 3d, A. L. Stephen, Red Kidney. Beets, 
Egyptian Turnip: 1st, Oliver Ames; 2d, E. L. Lewis; 3d, W. J. 
Clemson. Any other variety: 1st, E. A. Clark, Detroit Blood Red; 
2d, E. L. Lewis, Edmand's; 3d, W. J. Clemson, Farquhar's Mid- 
summer. Swiss Chard: 1st, Faulkner Farm, Lucullus. Cabbage, 
Drumhead type: 1st, E. L. Lewis, World Beater; 2d, E. L. Lewis, 
Sure Head. Ballhead Type: 1st, Faulkner Farm, Danish Ballhead. 
Carrots, Long: 1st, J. A. Nixon, Long Orange; 2d, J. A. Neal, New 
Intermediate; 3d, E. L. Lewis, Long Orange. Half-long: 1st, 
E. L. Lewis, Chatenay; 2d, J. A. Neal, Danvers half -long; 3d, 
E. L. Lewis, Danver's half-long. Cauliflower: 1st, E. L. Lewis, 
Snowball. Celery, Paris Golden: 1st, E. L. Lewis; 2d, J. A. Nixon; 
3d, J. F. Madden. White or Pink Plume: 1st, Mrs. Stewart Duncan; 
2d, J. A. Nixon; 3d, Michael Cahalan. Boston Market : 1st, Michael 
Cahalan. Giant Pascal: 1st, J. A. Nixon; 2d, E. L. Lewis; 3d, W. H. 
Heustis. Any other variety: 1st, E. L. Lewis, Early Blanching; 2d, 
Michael Cahalan, Early Blanching; 3d, W. H. Heustis, Early Blanch- 
ing. Celeriac: 1st, F. W. Dahl. Sweet Corn, Stowell: 1st, Mrs. 
Stewart Duncan. Any other white variety: 1st, J. A. Nixon, Potter's 
Excelsior; 2d, Mrs. Stewart Duncan, Mammoth. Any yellow variety: 
1st, Dr. F. S. DeLue, Golden Giant; 2d, Faulkner Farm, Golden 
Giant. Field Corn, yellow: 1st, E. L. Lewis, Davis Flint; 2d, 
Faulkner Farm, Longfellow. Any other color: 1st, E. L. Lewis, 
R. I. White. Popcorn: 1st, H. W. Hayes, Egyptian; 2d, A. L., 
Stephen, Golden Queen; 3d, A. L. Stephen, Golden Tom Thumb, 
Cucumbers, White Spine type: 1st, J. A. Neal, Davis Perfect; 2d, 
Mrs. J. W. Blodgett, White Spine; 3d, E. L. Lewis, White Spine. 



AWARDS FOB VEGETABLES 129 

English type: 1st, Mrs. Stewart Duncan, Telegraph: 2d, Mrs. J. W. 
Blodgett, Model; 3d, J. A. Neal, Every Day. Ego Plant: 1st, Mrs. 
J. W. Blodgett, Black Beauty: 2d. Oliver Ames, New York Improved; 
3d, Mrs. Stewart Duncan, Black Beauty. Endive: 1st, J. A. Xixon, 
Batavian; 2d. Faulkner Farm, Batavian; 3d. Faulkner Farm, Curled 
French. Kale ok Borecole: 1st, Faulkner Farm. Scotch Green 
Curled; 2d, Faulkner Farm, Variegated. Kohl Rabi: 1st, Oliver 
Ames, Purple Vienna; 2d, F. W. Dalil. White. Leeks: 1st, E. A. 
Clark, Musselburgh; 2d, J. A. Neal, Musselburgh; 3d, Mrs. J. VY. Blod- 
gett, Lyon. Lettuce, Cabbage: 1st, E. L. Lewis, Black-seeded 
Tennis-ball. Cos or Romaine: 1st. .1. A. Xixon, Little Gem. Okbaob 
Gumbo: 1st, Airs. Stewart Duncan. Onions, Ailsa Craig: 1st, Mrs. 
Stewart Duncan; 2d, J. A. Xeal. Prizetaker: 1st, J. A. Xeal: 2d, 
W. J. Clemson; 3d, Michael Cahalan. Any other straw-color or 
yellow variety: 1st, Oliver Ames. Southpoii Yellow Globe; 2d, 
Oliver Ames, Australian Brown: 3d, Mrs. Stewart Duncan, Cranston's. 
Danvers: 1st, Oliver Ames: 2d, Mrs. J. VY. Blodgett: 3d, Michael 
Cahalan. lied, any variety: 1st. E. A. Clark, Danvers Red Globe; 
2d, Mrs. J. W. Blodgett, Early Bed Globe. White, any variety: 1st, 
Mrs. J. W. Blodgett. White Portugal. Parsnips: fet, E. L. Lewis, 
Hollow Crown. Pabsley: 1st, Mrs. J. W. Blodgett, Dobbie'a Exhi- 
bition; 2d, Faulkner Farm, the same: 3d, E. L. Lewis, the same. 
Peppebs: 1st, E. L. Lewis. Chinese Giant; 2d, E. L. Lewis, Magnus 
Deluge; 3d, Mrs. J. W. Blodgett, Bullnose. Potatoes, Green Moun- 
tain: 1st, J. A. Nixon; 2d. E. II. Peirce; 3d, J. L Neal. Early Ohio: 
1st, A. L. Stephen. Delaware: 1st, E. L. Lewis: 2d, W. .1 Clemson. 
Irish Cobbler: 1st, E. A. Clark. Vermont Cold Coin: 1st, W. J. 
Clemson. Any other white variety: 1st, E. L. Lewis, Sir Walter 
Raleigh; 2d, J. A. Nixon. Norcross; 3d, J. A. Xeal. Norcross. Any 
red or rose variety: 1-t, E. L. Lewis. Spaulding K<>se; 2d, •! \ Nixon, 
Spaulding Rose; 3d, Mrs. .1. W. Blodgett, Early Rose Pumpkin, 
Sugar: 1st, Faulkner Farm; 2d. J. A. Neal. Any other variety: 1st, 
Faulkner Farm, Winter Luxury: 2d. II. W. Hayes, Mammoth. 
Heaviest Pumpkin: E. A. Clark. King of Mammoth. RADI8HES, 
Early type: 1st. J. L. Smith. Scarlet Globe; 2.1. Mrs. .1. W. Blodgett. 
Winter type: 1st, Oliver Ames. Icicle: 2d, Oliver Ames, Chil 
Pink. SHALLOTS: 1st, Mrs. Stewart Duncan: 2d. Faulkner Farm. 
Spinach, Hound leaf type: 1-t. E. L. Lewi-. New Zealand: 
I \ (lark: 2d. Mrs, .1. W. Blodgett. 



William .1 . Walki r Fund. 

Squash, Boston Marrow: 1-t. E l. Lewis Hubbard: i--. 1 i; Pi 
\ _• l»le Marrow: Let, Mrs •' W Blodgett, Moore's Green-etri] 

2d. J. \ Neal, Long White. Any other va .! \\ 






130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Blodgett, Crookneck; 2d, E. L. Lewis, the same. Tomatoes, any- 
red variety: 1st, Oliver Ames, Livingston's Stone; 2d, J. A. Neal, 
Bonnie Best; 3d, J. A. Nixon, Stone. Any yellow variety: 1st, 
Faulkner Farm, Golden Queen; 2d, J. A. Neal, the same. Green- 
house culture: 1st, Oliver Ames, Crocker's Alaska; 2d, Mrs. Stewart 
Duncan, Carter's Sunrise. Collection of small-fruited varieties: 1st, 
A. L. Stephen; 2d, Faulkner Farm. Turnips, White Rutabaga: 
1st, E. L. Lewis. Yellow Rutabaga: 1st, E. L. Lewis. White Egg: 
1st, Faulkner Farm. Any other vegetable, not mentioned in the 
foregoing list: 1st, Faulkner Farm, Scorzonera; 2d, E. A. Clark, 
Sweet Potatoes. Collection of sweet and pot herbs, fresh: 1st, 
Faulkner Farm; 2d, J. A. Nixon. 



Prizes offered by the Mass. State Department of Agriculture. 

Collection of Salad Plants: 1st, J. A. Neal; 2d, E. L. Lewis. Collec- 
tion of vegetables, 18 varieties: 1st, E. L. Lewis; 2d, J. A. Neal; 
3d, J. A. Nixon. 12 varieties: 1st, E. A. Clark; 3d, A. L. Stephen. 

Special Prizes offered by the Society for the Products of Amateur Home 

Vegetable Gardens. 

Beans, Green string: 1st, A. L. Stephen, Masterpiece; 2d, C. O. Bergen- 
heim, Bountiful. Wax: 1st, C. O. Bergenheim; 2d, Henry Archi- 
bald. Lima, pods: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, J. A. Nixon. Lima, 
shelled: 1st, John Bauernfeind; 2d, Michael Cahalan. Prolific Tree, 
shelled: 1st, A. L. Stephen. Any other variety, shelled: 1st, A. L. 
Stephen; 2d, John Bauernfeind. Beets: 1st, Michael Cahalan; 2d, 
J. A. Nixon. Swiss Chard: 1st, Michael Cahalan; 2d, A. L. Stephen. 
Cabbages, White; 1st, H. W. Hayes; 2d, Michael Cahalan. Car- 
rots, Long: 1st. C. O. Bergenheim; 2d, Michael Cahalan. Half- 
long: 1st, Michael Cahalan; 2d, C. O. Bergenheim. Cauliflower: 
1st, J. A. Nixon, Snowball; 2d, Michael Cahalan, the same. Celery: 
1st, Michael Cahalan, White Plume; 2d, C. O. Bergenheim, Golden 
Self Blanching. Sweet Corn: 1st, Michael Cahalan, Potter's Ex- 
celsior; 2d, Henry Archibald, the same. Cucumbers: 1st, C. A. 
Dickinson; 2d, C. O. Bergenheim. Endive: 1st, A. L. Stephen, 
Batavian. KohlRabi: 1st, F. W. Dahl; 2d, J. A. Nixon. Lettuce: 
1st, Michael Cahalan. Onions: 1st, C. O. Bergenheim, Ailsa Craig; 
2d, Michael Cahalan, Prizetaker. Parsley: 1st, A. L. Stephen; 
2d, F. W. Dahl. Parsnips: 1st, Michael Cahalan, Hollow Crown. 
Peppers, Green: 1st C. A. Dickinson, Ruby King; 2d, Michael 
Cahalan, Sweet Mountain. Potatoes, Green Mountain: 1st, A. L. 
Stephen; 2d, W. R. Tuttle. Any other variety: 1st, A. L. Stephen > 



\\\ \Kl>^ for VEGETABLES 131 

Irish Cobbler; 2d, Michael Cahalan, Delaware. Pumpkins, Sugar: 
1st, Michael Cahalan. Heaviest specimen: 1st, H. \v. Saves; 2d, 
Michael Cahalan. Radishes: 1st, <i 0. Bergenheim; 2d, Michael 

Cahalan. SCOTCB K\i.i;: 1st, Michael Cahalan. SPINACH, New 
Zealand: 1st, C. {) - Bergenheim. SqT LSH, Delicious: 1st, Michael 
Cahalan. Hubbard: 1st, II. W. Haves; 2d, Michael Cahalan. Any 
other variety: 1st, J. G. Misthoj 2d, Michael Cahalan, Golden Mar- 
row. Tomatoes, Stone: 1st, Michael Cahalan. Any other variety: 
l-t. A. L. Stephen, Sunrise; 2d, Mrs. B. I'. Endicott, Acme. Turnips: 

1st) J. A. Nixon, White buu \w OTHEB VEGETABLE, not mentioned 
in this hat: 1st, J. A. Nixon, Leeks; 2d, Michael Cahalan, Leeks, 

Collection 01 vegetables, 8 varieties: 1st, C. 0. Bergenheim; 2d. 
Michael Cahalan. 



Benjamin V. French Finn/, \,>. p. 

CEREALS, one half bushel Wheat: 1st, T. D. Hatfield. One half bushel 
<)ats: 1st, Faulkner Farm. One half bushel Winter Rye: 1st, 
Faulkner Farm. 



Autumn Exhibition of Fruits and Vegetables 
November 8 anb '.). 

John .1 . Lowell Fund. 

Collection of vegetables, 6 varieties: 1st, E. A. Clark. 

Silvkh Medal. 

September 25. D. R. McLean, superior cultivation of Onions. 
T. J. Grey Co., collection of vegetables. 

Honorable Mention. 
March 8. Hillcrest Farm, Japanese Crones. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S 

GARDENS. 

By Henry Saxton Adams, Chairman. 



The annual exhibition of the products of children's gardens was 
held at Horticultural Hall, Saturday and Sunday, August 30th and 
31st, 1919. There were 183 prizes offered for displays of vegetables 
and flowers grown by children under 18 years of age in their home 
and school gardens all of which, with two exceptions, were awarded. 

The total amount of prizes offered was $250.00 of which $100.00 
was given by the State Department of Agriculture for the encour- 
agement of gardening among the children of the Commonwealth. 
In addition the Massachusetts Horticultural Society offered, for 
the first time, silver and bronze medals to the children having the 
best gardens in thirty cities and towns within ten miles of the State 
House. This proved an interesting and valuable feature and 
should be carried on and the area enlarged another year. 

The exhibition, which was free to the public, was open Saturday 
from 12 to 6 and Sunday from 1 to 6 o'clock. While many visited 
and enjoyed the exhibition more members of the Society should 
make an effort to visit these exhibitions. The exhibits have 
improved year by year and the encouragement given to the children 
by showing them that the Society as a whole is interested in their 
work would be a great stimulus. The committee would appreciate 
suggestions from the members which would be given if more visited 
the show. 

In looking backward over the exhibitions since the first, more 
than ten years ago, which only partly filled the small exhibition hall, 
one is impressed with the ureat improvement in quality of material 
as well as with the increase in the exhibitors and quantity of ex- 
hibits, filling as it has during the past few yean all three halls. 
In the class of vegetables this year there were 528 single entries of 

beans, beets, etc., with probably more than 800 separate exhibits 

l u 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

in all classes of flowers and vegetables. This is truly a fine showing 
and every effort should be made to increase the number of exhibitors 
over as large an area as possible. Should Brockton, for instance, 
fail to exhibit a serious falling off in numbers would result. 

The exhibits from the school gardens were excellent and much 
could be said about them. As a whole they were better arranged, 
better in quality and condition than formerly, and showed a better 
understanding of what the committee is striving for in the way of 
exhibits. The canning exhibits were better than ever. 

The schedule was more satisfactory this year than last owing to 
our increased appropriation and every class offered was competed 
for. Your Chairman suggests that the appropriation be sufficiently 
increased to meet the growing needs of the committee and that a 
special effort be made to extend the area covered by the exhibitors. 
We should have every city and town in eastern Massachusetts 
represented at our exhibit. 

The thanks of the Society as well as of the Chairman are ex- 
tended to those who worked so hard and faithfully to make the 
exhibit of 1919 so successful. 

A list of the principal awards is given herewith. 

For the best collection of fifteen varieties of vegetables from a school 
garden established previously to May 1, 1915: 

First.— McKinley School, Brockton $10.00 

Second. — Norfolk House Centre, Roxbury 8.00 

Third. — Dorchester Industrial School, Dorchester 6.00 

Fourth. — Deerfield Street Garden, Boston 4.00 

Fifth.— Copeland School, Brockton . 2.00 

For the best collection of ten varieties of vegetables from a school garden 
established since May 1, 1915: 

First,— Elihu Greenwood School, Hyde Park 8.00 

Second. — Jamaica Plain Neighborhood House 6.00 

Third.— Trescott School, Hyde Park 4.00 

Fourth. — Roxbury Charitable Society 2.00 

Fifth. — Community House, North Brighton 1 . 00 

For the best collection of vegetables from a school garden within two 
and one-half miles of the State House: 

First. — Boston Common Garden 5 . 00 

Second. — Jefferson School, Boston 3 . 00 



AWARDS FOR CHILDREN S GARDE\> 



135 



For the best collection of flowers from a school garden: 



First. — Deerfield Street Garden, Boston . 
Second. — McKinley School, Brockton 
Third. — Dorchester Industrial School 
Fourth. — Norfolk House Centre, Roxbury 
Fifth. — John Winthrop School, Dorchester 



6.00 
4.00 
2.00 
1.00 
1.00 



For the best collection of eight varieties of vegetables from a child's 
garden : 

First. — Emil L. Erickson, Brockton 5.00 

Second.— Wilfred It. Tuttle, Arlington 4.00 

Third.— William O'Brien, Brockton 3.00 

Fourth. — Sumner Metcalf , Saugus 2.00 

Fifth. — Francis Hines, Arlington 1.00 

For the best collection of four varieties of vegetables from a child's 
garden : 

First. — Donald W. Rust, Jamaica Plain 3.00 

Second. — Evald Lawson, Brockton 2.00 

Third.— Joseph O'Brien, Brockton 1.00 

Fourth. — Robert Calpin, Mattapan 1. 00 

Fifth. — Ruth Sjoquist, Mattapan 1.00 

For the best collection of flowers from a child's garden: 

First.— Elsa Xaber, Grove Hall 3.00 

Second.— Marcia E. Tuttle, Arlington 2.00 

Third. — Sibyl Murphy, Dorchester .... 1.00 

Fourth. — Ernest Oetinger, Boston 1. 00 

Fifth.— Win. T. Miller, Jr., Roslindale 1.00 

For the best collection of wild flowers: 

Pint. — Helen E. Knight, Newbury 8.00 

Second.— Ruth Naber, Grove Hall 5.00 

Third. — Marcia E. Tuttle, Arlington 3.00 

Fourth. — Elisabeth H. Kress. Hingham LOO 

For collection of vegetables put up in glass jars: 

First. — Brighton Girls' Canning Club 5.00 

Second. — Happy Home Harvest Helpers, Ashmont \ oo 

Third.— Gold Star Canning Qub, Hyde Park 3.00 

Fourth.— Arlington Victory Canning Club 2.00 

Fifth. — Brockton High School Canning Club LOO 



136 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Special Prize for decorative garden exhibit: 
Mary Hemenway School, Roxbury 10 . 00 

Henry Saxton Adams 
Dr. Harris Kennedy 
Mrs. W. Rodman Peabody 
Miss Margaret A. Rand 
James Wheeler 



Committee 

on Children's 

Gardens. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN FOR 

THE YEAR 1919. 



The year 1919 completes the ninetieth of the Society's history. 
The adverse conditions of the past two years are gradually passing 
and the ten exhibitions of the Society held during the year have 
shown a marked improvement. Trie appropriation for prizes was 
$3,500 of which only $500 was devoted for flower exhibits, and this 
for outdoor grown flowers exclusively. Thus the greater part of 
the prizes offered was for the encouragement of the fruit and 
vegetable interests resulting in very satisfactory exhibits and com- 
petition in these important classes. 

The old-time exhibits of greenhouse flowering and foliage plants 
have notably diminished in recent years due to the fact that many 
private estates have felt obliged to close their greenhouses in whole 
or in part on account of the necessity of conserving fuel and also 
by reason of the scarcity and high cost of labor. 

The summer and autumn shows of roses, peonies, irises, gladioli, 
and dahlias showed the increasing interest in these popular outdoor 
plants. 

The largest show of the year was the Fruit and Vegetable Exhi- 
bition, September 25-28, at which 581 prizes were offered and 388 
competed for and awarded. At this exhibition a section of special 
prizes for exhibits of the products of home vegetable gardens was 
scheduled, embracing 42 classes of two prizes each nearly all of 
which had numerous entries. This innovation is one that should 
receive more encouragement in future schedules. The Massa- 
chusetts State Department of Agriculture offered at this exhibition 
and the Children's Garden Exhibition $700 in prizes all c>\' which 
was awarded. 

The experience of the year as well as in all the years of the 
Society's history has shown pretty conclusively that if exhibitions 
of garden products are to be maintained as prominent feature^ of 
its work encouragement must be offered to exhibitors ami that 
money prices seem to be the most acceptable. 

137 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

A new feature of the Society's work during the year has been the 
publication of a Bulletin of which two numbers have been issued. 
The object of the Bulletin is to present to the members matters of 
interest concerning the activities of the Society and to stimulate a 
greater interest in its work. It is planned to continue its publica- 
tion as suitable material accumulates. 

The customary two issues of the Transactions of the Society 
have been published and distributed to the members and exchanges. 



The Library. 

Part 1 of the new catalogue of the library was issued in April. 
This part contains an alphabetical list of authors and titles in 364 
quarto pages and the few copies distributed have elicited highly 
complimentary notices. The material for Part 2 is ready for 
printing but owing to the disturbed condition of the printing trade 
and the enormous advance in cost it has been deemed advisable to 
delay its publication awaiting more favorable conditions. 

Appreciative thanks are due Mrs. Henrietta Page, Oakes Ames, 
Thomas N. Cook, and C. Harman Payne for gifts of acceptable 
material for the library. 

Additions to the collection of horticultural trade catalogues 
numbering 105, have been made during the year making the total 
number January 1, 1920, 10,930. This collection is proving of 
much historical value and is frequently consulted by authors of 
horticultural publications. 

An addition of $1,454.59 to the John D. W. French Fund has 
been received during the year from the estate making the amount 
of the fund $6,454.59. This fund, established in 1901 under the 
will of John D. W. French, provides that the income shall be used 
for the purchase of books for the library. 

With the additions being constantly made to the library the 
aim is to maintain its position as the leading horticultural library 
in the country. 

William P. Rich, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR 1919. 



Income. 

Income from Interest on Investments and Bank 

Interest $14,281 36 

" Rents 8,446 42 

" " Massachusetts 700 00 

" " Membership Fees 492 00 

" " Donations 73 75 

" Sale of lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 2,088 11 $26,081 64 






Expense. 

Operating Expense $17,225 47 

Viz: Salaries $4,355 92 

Insurance 3,012 72 

Heating 1,491 75 

Labor 3,849 11 

Incidentals 1,352 09 

Stationery and Printing . . 965 59 

Lighting 1,427 35 

Library 432 22 

Postage 17."> 00 

Repairs 163 72 

Prizes 978 25 

Viz: Plants and Flowers in excess of 

Income from Special Funds . 29 00 
Fruits in excess of Income from 

Special Funds 288 00 

Vegetables in excess of Income 

from Special Funds ... loi oo 

Childrens' Gardens .... 257 25 

Expenditures b] Committees 1,225 97 

Viz: Lecture's and Publications . . 277 00 

Medals 144 88 

Prizes :;•_>:; 09 

Plants 200 00 

Fruits u:; 00 

Vegetables L38 00 



Forward 119,429 W 186,081 M 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Brought forward $19,429 69 $26,081 64 

Expenses paid from Funds 1,467 19 

Viz: John Allen French .... $ 21100 

Benj. V. French 122 00 

Geo. Robert White .... 5.35 

John C. Chaffin 30 00 

John Lewis Russell .... 48 00 

W. J. Walker 114 00 

Marshall P. Wilder .... 49 00 

John S. Farlow 65 46 

J. D. W T . French ....'. 143 38 

John A. Lowell 54 00 

Theodore Lyman 527 00 

Josiah Bradlee 21 00 

John S. Farlow 6 00 

H. H. Hunnewell 71 00 

Library Catalogue 1,828 02 

Legal Expense 389 35 

$23,114 25 
Balance of Income from Funds for year 1919, 

unexpended 1,034 97 

Excess of Income over Expenditures .... 1,932 42 $26,081 64 



Assets. 

Real Estate $498,564 63 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61 

Library 46,580 47 

$2,000 Kansas, Clinton & Springfield 5% Bds. 1925 1,980 00 
$10,000 Lake Shore & Mich. Southern R. R. 3£% 

Bds. 1997 10,000 00 

$21,000 City of Newton 4% Bds. 1928 .... 21,00000 

$50,000 Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe 4% Bds. 1995 44,693 25 
$50,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Neb. 4% 

Bds. 1927 50,000 00 

$11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. 5% 9,933 75 

$25,000 Kan. City, Ft. Scott & Memphis 6% 1928 25,000 00 

$50,000 C. B.&Q., 111. Div.3|%1949 .... 50,00000 

$8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. 4§% 1944 . . . 8,000 00 

$4,000 Am. Tel. & Tel. Co. Convert, 4% Bds. 1936 4,000 00 

$4,000 Interborough Rapid Transit 5% 1966 . . 3,920 00 

$12,000 Pacific Telephone Co., 5% 1937 . . . 11,670 00 

280 Shares General Electric Co 11,806 48 

Hayes & Loring 2,308 66 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 141 

112,000 United States liberty Bonds .... 12,00000 

$5,000 United States Steel 5% Bda 5,043 7.". 

Treasurer's Cash 13,528 00 

Bursar's ( Sash 347 67 



$838,359 27 

Liabilities . 

Samuel Appleton Fund $ 1,042 00 

John A. Lowell '• 1,026 00 

Th<odon> Lyman " 11,353 00 

Josiafa Bradlee 1,059 00 

Benj. Y. French " 540 00 

II II Hunnewell 4,249 00 

W .1 Walker - 2,428 75 

Levi Whitcomb ■ 540 00 

Benj. B. Davis " 540 00 

Marshall P. Wilder 1,003 00 

John Lewis Russell " 1,022 00 

Francis Brown Hayes 10,800 00 

Henry A. Gane 1,304 00 

John S. Farlow " 2,690 45 

J. D. \V. French " 6,752 63 

Benj. H. Pierce 864 00 

John C. Chaffin " 1,275 89 

Benj. V. French " 3,118 00 

John Allen French 5,189 00 

George Robert White 7,833 23 

John S. Farlow 3,126 42 

Helen Collamore " 5,000 00 $72,756 37 

Capital and Reserve 765,602 90 



,359 27 

Changes in Capital Account During Year ended Dec. 31, 1919. 

Receipts. 

.">()' ( of Receipts from Mt. Auburn Cemetery . $2,088 11 

General Electric "rights" 143 40 

Life Membership Fees 1,050 00 

Library Catalogue 100 00 $3,381 51 



Expenditures. 

Library Catalogue $270 00 

Capital Increase 3,111 51 $3,381 51 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Balance Sheet — January 1, 1920. 

Assets. 
Cash: 

Treasurer $13,528 88 

Bursar 347 67 

Investments 269,047 23 

Property, Massachusetts & Huntington Avenues 498,564 63 

Furniture and Exhibition Ware 7,982 61 

Library Equipment 46,580 47 

$836,051 49 
Funds and Capital. 

Life Membership Fees $6,000 00 

Mount Auburn Cemetery Fund 9,225 79 

Sundry Funds 72,756 37 

Bequest of F. B. Hayes $247,489 27 

Less Guardian Acct, $82,496 43 

Trustee Acct. 2,308 66 84,805 09 162,684 18 

Capital Account 564,524 70 

Less loss on bonds 2 50 564,522 20 815,188 54 

Accumulated Reserve 20,862 95 



Total Funds and Capital $836,051 49 

Membership. 

December 31, 1919. 

Life Members, December 31, 1918 790 

Added in 1919 36 

826 
Deceased 26 

800 

Annual Members, December 31, 1918 195 

Added in 1919 15 

210 

Deceased 1 . . 

Resigned 1 . . 

Changed to Life 3 . . 

Dropped for non-payment of dues . . . . 3 . . 8 202 

Membership, December 31, 1919 1002 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER 143 

Income from Membership. 

33 New Life Members at $30 1990 00 

15 New Annual Members at $10 150 00 

3 Annual Members changed to Life 60 00 

Dues for 1919 342 00 



$1,542 00 



Walter Huxnewell, 

Treasurer. 

Auditor's Certificate. 

40 State Street, Boston - , 

March, 2, 1920. 
To the Finance Committee of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Gentlemen: 

As requested by you I have made a thorough audit of the books and 
general accounting affairs of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
for the year which ended with the thirty-first day of December, 1919, and 
herewith submit to you my report of the same. 

Report. 

I reviewed and checked all additions, entries and postings in the books 
of the Society which dealt with the income and outgo of moneys; examined 
the checks and approved vouchers representing disbursements, which were 
in all instances adequate to sustain the charges of moneys expended; saw 
that all income was deposited in banks to the credit of the Society and 
found the amount of cash required by the cash book upon the first day of 
January, 1920, to have been on hand. 

I examined the securities of the Society and they were in all details in 
accordance with the requirements of the records. All postings from the 
journal and cash books were traced into the ledger and I certify that the 
balance sheet of the 31st day of December, 1919, is a correct abstract and 
that the Treasurer's statement of the assets and liabilities of the Society 
upon said date is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. 

In short, I satisfied myself tliat the work in connection with the account- 
ing affairs of the Society is being intelligently and faithfully performed and 
thai the hooks and papers of the Society arc in commendable condition. 



Yours verj respectfully, 



Am'ki.w ErnwABT, 
Certified Puhhc \ 



THE ANNUAL MEETING, NOVEMBER 15, 1919. 



145 



ANNUAL MEETING FOR THE YEAR 1919. 



The Annual Meeting of the [Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
for the year 1919 was held at Horticultural Hall, Boston, at twelve 
o'clock, noon, on Saturday, November 15, with Vice-President 
Kidder in the Chair. The call for the meeting was read by the 
Secretary and the Chair appointed Messrs. E. B. Wilder, J. A. 
( rosbv, and W. P. Rich a committee to receive, assort, and count 
the ballots, and to report the number. He then declared the polls 
open, to remain open until three o'clock. 

The record of the preceding meeting of the Society was read by 
the Secretary and duly approved. The Chair announced that the 
following appropriations for prizes and exhibitions for the year 
1920 had been made and approved by the Board of Trustees: 

Society's appropriation for six exhibitions, $7,500, to include the 
income of the special prize funds. 

A contribution of $1,000 for four additional exhibitions offered 
by Miss Marian R. Case of Weston to be entered under the heading 
of Hillcrest Prizes. 

An appropriation $300 for children's garden prizes. 

At three o'clock the Chair declared the polls closed and Mr. 
Wilder, for the committee, reported the result of tin 1 balloting 
follows: 

Whole number of ballots cast 2(\. 

For President, William ('. Endicotl had 22. 

For Vibe-President (for two years), Charles S. Sargent had I s . 

For Trustees (for three years), Albert < . Burrage had 26; Ernest 
B. Dane, 26; Edwin S. Webster, 26; Fred A. Wilson, 19. 

For Trustee (for two years), Arthur II. Fewkea had 22. 

For Nominating Committee, Oakcs Ames received 23; William 
Anderson, 26; John K. M. L. Farquhar, 26; Samuel J. Goddard, 
26; John K.Thayer, L><>. 

147 



148 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Vice-President Kidder then declared that the following list of 
officers of the Society for the year 1920 had been duly elected: 



President 
Vice President 

(for two years) 
Trustees 
- (for three years) 



Trustee 

(for two years) 
Nominating Committee 



William C. Endicott 
Charles S. Sargent 

Albert C. Burrage 
Ernest B. Dane 
Edwin S. Webster 
Fred A. Wilson 
Arthur H. Fewkes 

Oakes Ames 
William Anderson 
John K. M. L. Farquhar 
Samuel J. Goddard 
John E. Thayer 



No other business being offered the meeting was then dissolved. 



William P. Rich, 

Secretary. 



XKCROLOGY, 1919. 






■■ ■■! I ■ ■>!■« 



NECROLOGY, 1919. 



Admitted 

1902 Horace Everett Ware 

1865 Mrs. Ellen M. Gill 

1885 William J. Stewart 

1914 Alexander Cochrane 

1892 George Francis Pierce 

1896 Charles Henry Tenney 
1888 Thomas Page Smith 

1899 Mrs. Alice Robeson Thayer 

1887 Frank Wheeler 

1905 E. Everett Holbrook 

1904 Arthur F. Barney 

1914 William Bentley Walker 

1905 William Brewster 

1915 William B. Blckminster 

1897 Arthur F. Esta brook 
1899 Mrs. Charles S. Sargent 
1892 Ebed L. Ripley 

1899 Thomas Dennie Boardman 

1909 Arthur Waiwyright 

1899 John Mason Little 

1900 Miss Mary Rodman 
1911 Mrs. James G. Freeman 



Died 

January 27 

January 29 

February 23 

April 10 

April 21 

April 27 

April 29 

May 16 

May 26 

June 25 

July 1 

July 2 

July 11 

July 27 

July 27 

August 13 

August 21 

September 6 

October 2 

October 24 

November 12 

November 26 






161 



OFFICERS, COMMITTEES, AND MEMBERS, 1919. 






153 



assarjjttsttts fbrtiotlfural Sncirig, 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES 
FOR 1919. 



Preaident. 
WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston. 

Vice-Presidents. 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton. 
CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline. 

Treasurer. 
WALTER HUNNEWELL. of Boston. 

Secretary. 
WILLIAM P. RICH, of Chelsea.* 

Trustees. 

THOMAS ALLEN, of Boston. 
GEORGE E. BARNARD, of Ipswich. 
ERNEST B. DANE, of Brookline. 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, of Boston. 
JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston. 
WALTER HUNNEWELL. of Boston. 
CHARLES W. MOSELEY, of Newdurtport. 
ANDREW W. PRESTON, of Boston. 
THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant. 
RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, of Newton. 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston. 
STEPHEN M. WELD, of Wareham. 

Nominating Committee. 

WILLIAM ANDERSON. Soon Unourao. PETER FISHER, BUa. 

ROBERT T. JACKSON. PmoaoaooOB, N.H. EDWIN S WEBSTEF 

ERNEST II. WILSON, Jamaica Pi 



♦Communications to the Secretary. 00 the business of the Society. tftooM bt 
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall. Boston. 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



COMMITTEES FOB 1919 



Finance Committee 



WALTER HUNNEWELL, Chairman 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK STEPHEN M. WELD 

Membership Committee 

THOMAS ALLEN THOMAS ROLAND 

CHARLES W. MOSELEY RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL 

EDWIN S. WEBSTER 

Committee on Prizes and Exhibitions 

JAMES WHEELER, Chairman 

ROBERT CAMERON DUNCAN FINLAYSON 

WILLIAM N. CRAIG T. D. HATFIELD 

Committee on Plants and Flowers 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman 

DOUGLAS ECCLESTON DONALD McKENZIE 

S. J. GODDARD WILLIAM SIM 

Committee on Fruits 

EDWARD B. WILDER, Chairman 
WILLIAM N. CRAIG ISAAC H. LOCKE 

JAMES METHVEN FRED A. SMITH 

Committee on Vegetables 

JOHN L. SMITH, Chairman 
EDWARD PARKER WILLIAM C. RUST 

Committee on Gardens 

RICHARD M. SALTONSTALL, Chairman 
JOHN S. AMES CHARLES SANDER 

WILLIAM NICHOLSON CHARLES H. TENNEY 

Committee on Library 

CHARLES S. SARGENT. Chairman 
ERNEST B. DANE NATHANIEL T. KIDDER 

Committee on Lectures and Publications 

FRED A. WILSON, Chairman 
THOMAS ALLEN JOHN K. M L. FARQUHAR 

Committee on Children's Gardens 

HENRY S. ADAMS, Chairman 

DR. HARRIS KENNEDY MRS. W. RODMAN PEABODY 

MISS MARGARET A. RAND JAMES WHEELER 



MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 1919. 

Revised to December 31, 1919. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the 
following lists are inaccurate in any particular, will confer a favor by promptly 
communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, Washington, D. C. 

1900 Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticulture of 

France, Paris. 
1897 Hon. James Wilson, Ex-Secretary of Agriculture. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y. 

1898 John Gilbert Baker, F. R. S., F. L. S., Kew, England. 

1918 Isaac Bayley Balfour, M. D., LL. D., F. R. S., Regius Keeper of 
the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass. 

1918 Desire Bois, Editor of La Revue Horticole, Paris, France. 

1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France. 

1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y. 

1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K. C. M. G., F. R. S., "Witcombe," 
Gloucester, England. 

1918 William C. Egan, Highland Park, 111. 

1887 H. J. Elwes, F. R. S., Colesborne, Cheltenham, England. 

1918 Bertrand H. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa. 

1893 B. E. Fernow, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. 

1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

1877 George Lincoln Goodale, M. D., Cambridge, Mass. 

1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, So. Dak. 

1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

LOT 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

1907 Augustine Henry, F. L. S., M. R. I. A., Professor of Forestry, 
Royal College of Science, Dublin, Ireland. 

1897 J. W. Hoffmann, Colored State University, Orangeburg, S. C. 

1919 Lt.-Col. Sir George Holford, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, England. 

1918 Charles L. Hutchinson, Chicago, 111. 

1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile. 

1918 Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. 
1911 Smile Lemoine, Nancy, France. 

1919 Sir Edmund Giles Loder, Bt., Horsham, Sussex, England. 
1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa. 

1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 

1911 Wilhelm Miller, Superintendent of Horticulture, University of 

Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. 

1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens 

Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland. 

1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C. M. G., D.Sc, M. A., F. L. S. 

1919 M. Seraphin Joseph Mottet, Verrieres-le-Buisson (Seine-et-Oise), 

France. 

1912 C. Harman Payne, London, England. 

1906 Sir David Prain, C. I. E., C. M. G., F. R. S., Director of the Royal 

Botanic Gardens, Kew, England 
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily. 
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C. M. G., F. R. S., Kew, England. 

1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray Her- 

barium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
1875 William Robinson, London, England. 

1899 William Salway, Superintendent of Spring Grove Cemetery, 

Cincinnati, O. 
1919 M. Eugene Schaettel, Paris, France. 
1875 Robert W. Starr, Wolfville, N. S. 

1893 Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana, 

Illinois. 

1918 Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

1882 H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England. 

1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 
Holland. 

1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England. 

1894 William Watson, Curator of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 

1919 J. C. Williams, Gorran, Cornwall, England. 
1906 .Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England. 

1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Secretary of the Royal Prussian Horti- 
cultural Society, Berlin, Prussia. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



159 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



1899 Adams, Mrs Charles Francis, 

South Lincoln. 
1907 Adams, George E., Kingston, 

R. 1. 

1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R., Yar- 
mouth Port. 

1894 Allen, Hon. Charles H., Lowell. 

1916 Allen, Edward Ellis, Water- 
town. 

1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wilming- 
ton. 

1898 Allen, Thomas, Boston. 

1899 Ames, F. Lothrop, North 

Easton. 
1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L., North 

Easton. 
1899 Ames, John S., North Easton. 
1894 Ames, Oakes, North Easton. 
1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton. 
1867 Amory, Frederic, Boston. 

1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline. 
1911 Anderson, William, South Lan- 
caster. 

1864 Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 
1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H., 

Boston. 
1914 Appleton, Francis R., New 

York, N. Y. 

1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall, 

Boston. 

1914 Apthorp, Mrs. Harrison O., 

Milton. 

1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Francis, 

Brookline. 
1894 Ash, John, Pomfret Centre, 
Conn. 



1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 
1899 Ayer, James B., Boston. 

1912 Bache, James S., Sharon, Conn. 
1905 Backer, Clarence. A., Melrose. 
1914 Bacon, Miss E S., Jamaica. 

Plain. 
1905 Badger, Walter I., Cambridge. 
1902 Bailey, Robert M., Dedham. 
1902 Baker, Clifton P., Dedham. 
1901 Baker, James E., South Lincoln. 

1904 Balch, Joseph, Dedham. 
1909 Baldwin, Frank F., Ashland. 
1888 Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 

1905 Barnard, George E., Ipswich. 

1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brookline. 

1867 Barney, Levi C, Boston. 
1917 Barrett, Mrs. William Emerson, 

West Newton. 
1897 Barry, John Marshall, Boston. 
1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Boston. 

1914 Bartol, Dr. John W., Boston. 

1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Waver- 

ley. 
1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ipswich. 
1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford. 
1899 Baylies, Walter C, Taunton. 
1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston. 
1905 Beal, Thomas P., Boston. 

1891 Becker, Frederick C, Cam- 

bridge. 

1876 Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Ded- 
ham. 

1894 Becbe, E. Pierson, Boston. 

1890 Beebe, Franklin II.. Boston. 

1905 Bcmis, Frank B., Beverly. 

1914 Bonis, Mrs. Frank B., Beverly. 

1899 Bigelow, Albert B., Cohas.^ 



160 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1914 Bigelow, Charles, Brookline. 
1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohasset. 
1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Sturgis, 
Boston. 

1899 Black, George N., Manchester. 
1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., Brook- 
line. 

1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn- 
dale. 

1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston. 

1919 Blake, Hallie C, Lexington. 

1919 Blake, Kenneth Pond, Lexing- 
ton. 

1918 Blanchard, Archibald, Boston. 

1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp- 

scott. 

1905 Boardman, Miss Eliza D., 
Boston. 

1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E., Wake- 
field. 

1894 Bosler, Frank C, Carlisle, Perm. 

1887 Bowditch, Charles P., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1883 Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 

1894 Bowditch, Nathaniel I., Fram- 
ingham. 

1877 Bowditch, William E., Roxbury. 

1913 Brackett, C. Henry B., Boston. 
1912 Bradley, Charles H., Boston. 

1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D., 

Brookline. 

1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Waban. 
1914 Breck, Luther Adams, Newton. 
1871 Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt. 
1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton. 
1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton. 

1918 Brewer, William C, Newton 

Centre. 

1919 Briggs, George E., Lexington. 
1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R., Ply- 
mouth. 

1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln. 
1873 Brigham, William T., Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 

1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr., Provi- 

dence, R. I. 



1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton. 
1899 Brooks, Peter C, Boston. 
1899 Brooks, Shepherd, Boston. 

1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton. 
1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter, Prov- 
idence, R. I. 

1907 Brush, Charles N., Brookline. 
1919 Buff, Louis F., Jamaica Plain. 
1906 Buitta, Vincent, Newton Upper 

Falls. 
1914 Billiard, Alfred M., Milton. 

1918 Burgess, George Arthur, Mar- 

blehead. 
1897 Burlen, William H., East Hol- 
liston. 

1895 Burnett, Harry, Southborough. 
1911 Burnett, John T., Southbor- 
ough. 

1914 Burnett, Robert M., South- 
borough. 

1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C, Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Burr, I. Tucker, Milton. 

1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston. 

1919 Burrage, Mrs. Albert C, Bos- 

ton. 

1918 Burrage, Albert C, Jr., Ham- 
ilton. 

1918 Burrage, Charles D., Boston. 

1918 Burrage, Russell, Beverly 
Farms. 

1907 Butterworth, George William, 

South Framingham. 
1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, South 

Framingham. 
1905 Buttrick, Stedman, Concord. 

1902 Cabot, George E., Boston. 
1914 Cabot, Henry B., Brookline. 
1870 Calder, Augustus P., Brookline. 

1896 Cameron, Robert, Ipswich. 

1913 Campbell, Chester L, Wollas- 

ton. 
1891 Campbell, Francis, Cambridge. 
1905 Carr, Samuel, Boston. 
1893 Carter, Charles N., Needham. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



161 



1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden. 
1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby, Wes- 
ton. 

1918 Chalifoux, Mrs. H. L., Prides 

Crossing. 
1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy W., 

Waban. 
1909 Chamberlain, Montague, Gro- 

ton. 
1903 Chapman, John L., Prides 

Crossing. 
1917 Chase, H. F., Andover. 

1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Milton. 

1895 Cheney, Mrs. Elizabeth S., 

Wellesley. 

1894 Christie, William, Everett. 
1876 Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 

1919 Clapp, Robert P., Lexington. 
1871 Clapp, William C, Dorchester. 

1896 Clark, B. Preston, Cohasset. 
1917 Clark, Edward A., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1896 Clark, Miss Eleanor J., Pomfret 

Centre, Conn. 
1907 Clark, Herbert A., Belmont. 
1890 Clark, J. Warren, Millis. 

1910 Clark, Winslow, Milton. 
1899 Clarke, Eliot C, Boston. 
1914 Clifford, Charles P., Milton. 

1895 Clough, Micajah Pratt, Lynn. 
1894 Cobb, John C, Milton. 

1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A., 
Westwood. 

1914 Codman, James M., Jr., Brook- 
line. 

1901 Coe, Miss Mary Alma, Boston. 
1903 Cogswell, Edward R., Jr., New- 
ton Highlands. 

1882 Collins, Frank S., North 

Eastham. 
1914 Collins, William J., Brookline. 
1917 Comley, Henry R., Lexington. 

1902 Comley, Norris F., Lexington. 
1917 Converse, E. W., Newton. 
1899 Converse, Col. H. E .. Marion. 
1913 Cook, Thomas N., Watertown. 



1917 Cooley, Arthur N., Pittsfield. 

1914 Coolidge, Charles A., Boston. 

1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston. 

1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph, Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1899 Coolidge, Mrs. J. Randolph, 
Chestnut Hill. 

1919 Copeland, Miss E. Gertrude, 
Melrose. 

1914 Cotting, Charles E., Boston. 

1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E., Bos- 
ton. 

1892 Cottle, Henry C, Boston. 

1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A., 
Brookline. 

1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T., Bos- 
ton 

1917 Cowey, S. R., Lynnhaven, Va. 

1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan. 

1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S., Bos- 

ton. 

1901 Craig, William Nicol, Brookline. 

1917 Crane, Charles R., New York, 
N. Y. 

1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chicago, 
111. 

1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., Rox- 
bury. 

1917 Crocker, Mrs. George U., Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Crompton, Miss babel M., 
Worcester. 

18S7 Crosby, George E , West Brad- 
ford. 

11)1 I Crosby. Mil 8. V. R.. Boston. 

1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North 
Cohasset. 

1909 Cumner. Mrs. Nellie B., Brook- 
line. 

■ Curtis, Charlea 1 . Jamaio* 

Plain. 

I Curtis. Charles P . Boston. 
1908 Cutler. Mrs.Gharlsi r . Boston. 
L919 Cutler, Clareun EL, Lsxingfeon. 

I Cutter, Judge Samuel l: 

re. 



162 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1897 Damon, Frederick W., Arling- 
ton. 
1908 Dane, Ernest B., Brookline. 

1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook- 

line. 
1919 Danforth, Joseph A., Danvers. 

1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Boston. 

1909 Danielson, Mrs. J. DeForest, 

Boston. 
1902 Davis, Arthur E., Dover. 
1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., Dover. 

1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler, Wes- 

ton. 

1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Wellesley. 

1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton. 

1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent, Ja- 

maica Plain. 
1905 Day, Henry B., West Newton. 

1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton. 
1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
1917 Dexter, George T., Boston. 
1904 Dexter, Gordon,Beverly Farms. 
1904 Dexter, Philip, Beverly. 

1896 Donald, William, Cold Spring 

Harbor, N. Y. 

1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury. 
1907 Doten, Scott T., Lincoln. 
1917 Doty, George H., Boston. 
1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline. 
1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win- 
chester. 

1910 Downs, William, Chestnut Hill. 
1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston. 
1893 Dowse, William B. H., West 

Newton. 

1917 Draper, B. H. Bristow, Hope- 
dale. 

1899 Draper, George A., Hopedale. 

1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Chestnut 

Hill. 
1899 Duncan, James L., New York, 

N. Y. 
1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane, 

Wash. 
1896 Dunlap, James H., Nashua, 

N. H. 



1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S., Twickenham, Eng. 

1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Milton. 

1909 Dupuy, Louis, Whitestone, 
L. I., N. Y. 

1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hopedale. 

1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M., Hope- 

dale. 

1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Arlington. 

1912 Eaton, Harris D., Southbor- 
ough. 

1918 Eccleston, Douglas, Beverly 

Farms. 

1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Waverley. 

1912 Edgar, William Percival, Ja- 

maica Plain. 
1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 

1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Boston. 

1888 Elliott, William H., Brighton. 

1903 Ellsworth, J. Lewis, Worcester. 
1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W., M.D., 

Boston. 
1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. M., 2nd, 

Boston. 
1894 Endicott, William, Boston. 
1899 Endicott, William C, Danvers. 

1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C, 

Danvers. 

1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C, Jr., 
Danvers. 

1919 Engstrom, Richard, Lexington. 

1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, Ja- 
maica Plain. 

1905 Estabrook, Mrs. Arthur F., 
Boston. 

1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M., 
Brookline. 

1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St. Barbe, 
Brookline. 

1914 Evans, Mrs. Robert D., Boston. 

1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Milton. 

1881 Fairchild, Charles, New York, 

N. Y. 
1877 Falconer, William, Pittsburg,Pa. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



163 



'i 



1SS4 Farlow, Lewil H., Boston. 
1896 Fa rns worth, Mrs. William, Ded- 
ham. 

1890 Farquhar, James F. M., Roslin- 

dale. 

1891 Farquhar, John K. M. L., 

Roxbury. 
1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M. L., 
Roxbury. 

1884 Farquhar, Robert, North Cam- 

bridge. 
1873 Faxon, John, Quincy 
1899 Fay, II. H., Woods Hole. 

1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Medford. 
1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Boston. 
1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw, 

Rowley . 
1899 Fessenden, George B., Allston. 
1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Boston. 
1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton 

Highlands. 
1904 Finlayson, Duncan, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis. 
1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., Newton. 

1882 Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 

1883 Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 
1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M.D., 

Milton. 
1914 Forbes, Alexander, M.D., Mil- 
ton. 

1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart,Boston 
1909 Forbes, Mrs.J.Malcolm,Milton. 
1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West- 
wood. 

1909 Forbes, Mrs. William H., Mil- 
ton. 

1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston. 

1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton. 

1899 Foster, Charles H. W., Need- 
ham. 

1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, Newport, 
R. I. 

1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 



1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South 
Natick. 

1910 French, Mrs. Albert M., Read- 
ing. 

1892 French, S. Waldo, Newtonville. 

1893 French, W. Clifford, Brookline. 
1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Biddle, 

Boston. 
1882 Frohock, Roscoe R., Boston. 

1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington. 

1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont. 
1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A., 

Host on. 
1905 Fuld, Maurice, New York, N.Y. 

1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worcester. 

1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Lexing- 
ton. 

1914 Gannett, Samuel, Milton. 

1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardiner, 
Maine. 

1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P., 

Hamilton. 

1895 Gardner, George P., Boston. 

1899 Gardner, John L., Boston. 

1899 Gardner, Mrs. John L., Brook- 
line. 

1899 Gardner, William Amory, Gro- 
ton. 

1910 Garland, Mrs. Marie T., Buz- 

zards Bay. 

1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston. 
1899 Gaston, William A., Boston. 

1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manchester. 

1910 Geiger, Albert Jr., Brookline. 

1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury, 

Medford. 

1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Medford. 

1887 Gill, George B., Medford. 

1919 Gilmore, George L., Lexington. 

1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Framing- 
ham. 

1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Boston. 

1885 Goodell, L. W., Dwight. 

1917 Gordon, Donald, Lincoln. 

1899 Gray, Mrs. John C, Boston. 



164 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY 



1914 Greene, Edwin Farnham, Bos- 
ton. 

1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles P., 
Brookline. 

1912 Greenough, Mrs. David S., 
Jamaica Plain. 

1914 Grew, Mrs. Edward S., Boston. 

1914 Grew, Edward W., Boston. 

1919 Griffin, Arthur E., Marion. 

1897 Hale, James O., Byfield. 
1873 Hall, Edwin A., Cambridgeport. 

1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Boston. 
1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cambridge. 
1897 Hall, Osborn B., Maiden. 
1910 Halloran, Edward J., Roxbury. 

1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au- 

burndale. 

1913 Handler, Max Paul, South 

Natick. 

1914 Harding, Charles L., Dedham. 

1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward, Plain- 

field, N. J. 
1871 Hardy, F. D., Cambridgeport. 

1905 Hardy, Miss Susan White, 

Boston. 

1889 Hargraves, William J., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1887 Harris, Thaddeus William, A. 
M., Littleton, N. H. 

1910 Harris, Prof. William Fenwick, 
Cambridge. 

1909 Hart, Francis R., Milton. 

1899 Hartshorn, Arthur E., Worces- 
ter. 

1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline. 

1895 Harwood, George Fred, New- 
ton. 

1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 

1906 Hauthaway, Edwin D., Sharon. 
1914 Havemeyer, Theodore A., New 

York, N. Y. 

1891 Hawken, Mrs. Thomas, Rock- 
land, Me. 

1899 Hay ward, George P., Chestnut 
Hill. 



1914 Haywood, H. T., Franklin. 
1905 Head, Thomas W., Lake Forest, 
111. 

1913 Heeremans, F., Lenox. 
1903 Hellier, Charles E., Boston. 
1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Canton. 
1899 Hemenwa}'-, Mrs. Augustus, 

Canton. 

1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr., Bos- 

ton. 
1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 

1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cambridge. 

1901 Heurlin, Julius, South Brain- 

tree. 

1894 Hewett, Miss Mary Crane, 

Cambridge. 

1900 Higginson, Francis L., Boston. 

1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L., 

Boston. 
1866 Hilbourn, A. J. Boston. 
1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 

1911 Hittinger, Richard, Belmont. 

1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W., 

Nashua, N. H. 

1918 Holbrook, Miss Grace Ware, 
Boston. 

1914 Hollingsworth, Valentine, Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston. 
1881 Hollis, George W., Allston. 
1891 Holmes, Edward J., Boston. 

1900 Holt, William W., Norway, 

Maine. 

1899 Hood, The Hon. Mrs. Ellen, 
Sheen, Surrey, Eng. 

1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston. 

1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam- 
bridge. 

1912 Horton, Arthur E., Lexington. 
1902 Hosmer, Oscar, Baldwinsville. 
1907 Houghton, Clement S., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth G., 

Boston. 
1872 Hovey, Charles H., South 

Pasadena, Cal. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



165 



1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 

1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher- 
town. 

1904 Howard, Henry M., West New- 
ton. 

1896 Howard, Joseph W., Sornerville. 

1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston. 
1917 Howes, Osborne, Brookline. 
1896 Hubbard, Charles Wells, Wes- 
ton. 

1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Boston. 
1865 Hubbard, James C, Everett. 

1913 Huebner, H., Groton. 

1875 Humphrey, George W., Holly- 
wood, Cal. 

1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur, 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, F. W., Wellesley. 

1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S., 
Wellesley. 

1882 Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Jr., Welles- 
ley. 

1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston. 

1892 Hunt, Dudley F., Reading. 
1919 Hunt, William, Lexington. 
1880 Hunt, William H., Concord. 
1904 Hutchins, Rev. Charles Lewis, 

Concord. 

1919 I'Anson, George, Beverly 
Farms. 

1893 Jack, John George, East Wal- 

pole. 
1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston. 

1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr., West- 

wood. 
1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter- 
borough, N. H. 

1916 Jahn, Paul IL, East Bridge- 

water. 
1916 Jahn, William 0., Easl Bridge- 
water. 



1902 James, Ellerton, Milton. 

1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton, Milton. 

1913 Jeffries, John Temple L., Cam- 

bridge. 
1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston. 
1865 Jenks, Charles W., Bedford. 
1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston. 

1914 Johnson, Edward C, Boston. 

1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden. 
1907 Jones, Mrs. Clarence W., 

Brookline. 
1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 

1897 Kellen, William V., Marion. 

1886 Kelly, George B., Jamaica 

Plain. 

1848 Kendall, D.S., Woodstock, Ont. 

1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At- 
lantic. 

1909 Kennedy, Harris, M. D., Mil- 

ton. 

1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer, 

Boston. 

1891 Keyes, John M., Concord. 

1889 Kidder, Charles A., South- 
borough. 

1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., Boston. 
1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Milton. 
1899 Kimball, David P., Boston. 

1903 Kimball, Richard D., Waban. 
1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester. 

1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P., 

Worcester. 

1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard, 

Reading. 

1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Milton. 
1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B. f 

Brookline. 
1899 Lanier, Charles, I.enox. 
1917 Laphain, Henry (i., Brookline. 
1895 Lawrence, Amos A., New York, 

N. V. 
1873 LawrcnOB, John, Groton. 

' Lawrenc. Rt. Rev. William, 
'oil. 



166 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1895 Lee, Daniel D., Jamaica Plain. 
1914 Lee, George C, Westwood. 
1914 Lee, Mrs. George C., Westwood. 
1880 Leeson, Hon. Joseph R., New- 
ton Centre. 

1902 Leighton, George B., Monad- 

nock, N. H. 

1914 Leland, Lester, Boston. 

1914 Leland, Mrs. Lester, Boston. 

1871 Lemme, Frederick, Charles- 
town. 

1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford. 
1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut 

Hill. 
1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont. 
1891 Lodge, Richard W., Redlands, 

Cal. 

1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Bedford. 
1899 Loring, Augustus P., Beverly. 
1919 Loring, Augustus P., Jr., Prides 

Crossing. 

1905 Loring, David, Boston. 

1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P., 
Prides Crossing. 

1914 Loring, Miss Louisa P., Prides 
Crossing. 

1919 Loring, Mrs. Rosamond B., 
Prides Crossing. 

1899 Loring, Mrs. William Caleb, 
Beverly. 

1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, Bos- 
ton. 

1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brookline. 

1903 Lowell, James A., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1903 Lowell, John, Newton. 

1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston. 

1917 Luke, Arthur F., West Newton. 
1899 Luke, Otis H., Brookline. 
1895 Lunt, William W., Hingham. 

1918 Lyman, Arthur, Boston. 
1914 Lyman, C. Frederic, Boston. 
1895 Lyman, George H., Wareham. 

1898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth. 

1919 McGregor, Frank J., Newbury- 

port. 



1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chestnut 

Hill. 
1868 Mahoney, John, Boston. 
1892 Mallett, E. B., Jr., Freeport, 

Me. 
1884 Manda, W. A., South Orange, 

N.J. 

1887 Manning, J. Woodward, Read- 

ing. 
1884 Manning, Warren H., North 

Billerica. 
1909 Marlborough, James, Topsfield. 
1876 Marshall, Frederick F., Everett. 

1898 Marston, Howard, Brookline. 
1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Boston. 
1919 Mason, Miss Fanny P., Boston. 
1896 Mason, Col. Frederick, Taun- 
ton. 

1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth Ash- 
by, Newton Center. 

1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 
1906 Maxwell, George H., New- 
ton. 

1917 Mead, Francis V., West Somer- 
ville. 

1902 Melvin, George, South Fram- 

ingham. 

1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Topsfield. 

1919 Merriam, Edward P., Lexing- 
ton. 

1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 

1917 Methven, James, Readville. 

1884 Metivier, James, Waltham. 

1914 Mifflin, George H., Boston. 

1914 Miller, Peter M., Mattapan. 

1888 Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash- 

ington, D. C. 
1917 Mink, Oliver W., Boston. 

1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S., Read- 

ville. 
1908 Minot, Laurence, Boston. 
1892 Monteith, David, Hyde Park, 

Vt. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



167 



1896 Montgomery, Alexander, Na- 

tick. 
1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr., 

Natiek. 

1896 Moore, George D., Arlington. 
1881 Moore, John H., Concord. 

1897 Morgan, George II., New York, 

N. Y. 

1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., New York, 
N. Y. 

1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam- 
bridge. 

1899 Morse, John T., Boston. 

1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d., Bos- 

ton. 

1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Box- 

ford. 

1913 Morse, Robert C, Milton. 

1900 Morse, Robert M., Jamaica 

Plain. 

1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1902 Morton, James H., Huntington, 
N. Y. 

1896 Moseley, Charles H., Roxbury. 

1909 Moseley, Charles W., New- 
buryport. 

1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong, 

Newbury port. 

1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lexing- 
ton. 

1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 

1897 Mutch, John, Waban. 

1917 Neal, James A., Brookline. 
1899 Nevins, Mrs. David, Methuen. 
1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New 

York, N. Y. 
1874 Newman, John R., Winchester. 
1874 Newton, Rev. William W., 

Pittsfield. 
1919 Nichols, Mrs. W. L., Brookline. 
1914 Nicholson, William R., Fram- 

ingham. 



1906 Nickerson, William E., Cam- 

bridge. 

1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P., New- 
port, R. I. 

1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston. 

1912 O'Conner, John, Brookline. 
1898 Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., 

Brookline. 
1892 Olmsted, John C, Brookline. 

1898 Orpet, Edward O., Chico, Cal. 
1919 Osgood, Miss Alice J., Wellesley 

Hills. 
1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C, Hope- 
dale. 

1909 Page, George, Newton High- 
lands. 

1909 Page, George William, South 
Lincoln. 

1900 Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Cam- 
bridge. 

1884 Paige, Clifton H., Mattapan. 

1914 Paine, Robert Treat, 2d, Boston. 

1908 Parker, Augustine H., Dover. 

1913 Parker, Edgar, North Easton. 
1911 Parker, Edward, North Easton. 

1915 Parker, M iss Eleanor S . , Bedford . 
1917 Parkhurst, Lewis, Winchester. 
1891 Parkman, Henry, Boston. 

1914 Patten, Miss Jane B., South 

Natick. 
1897 Patten, Marcellus A., Tewks- 
bury. 

1909 Peabody, Francis, Milton. 
1909 Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Milton. 

1899 Peabody, George A., Dan vers. 
1881 Peabody, John E., Brookline. 

1907 Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham. 

1916 Peirce, Edward R., Wellesley 

Farms. 

1914 Peirson, Charles Lawrence, 

Boston. 

1915 Penn, Henry, Brookline. 

1899 Pentecost, Mrs. Ernest Harvey, 
Topsfield. 






3UK11LL LTTRAL SOCIETY 



? Perry. George W.. Maiden. 
1917 Petewm, George H.. 
Lawn. X. J. 

1899 Pfaff, Col. Charles, South 

.mrngham. 

1900 Phillips, John C : : :rth Bev- 

y. 
1899 Philhps. Mrs. John C 
Beverly. 

1899 I%ffl^6,Wflham,North Bevedy. 
1895 Pickman. Dudley L., Boston. 

1902 Pickman. Mrs. EDen R.. Bos- 

ton. 
1881 Pierce. Dean, Brookline. 
1906 Pierce, Wallace L., Boston. 
1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarrytown, 

Y. 
1914 Pingree, David, Salem. 
1919 Pocock, Frederick. Br 

DIB. 

1900 Pond, Preston, Wine 

1892 Porter, James '. llaston. 

1884 Pratt, Laban. Dorchester. 
1914 Pratt. Waldo E.. Wellesley 
Hills. 

1898 Pray,James Sturgis.Cambridge. 

1899 Prendogast, James M., Boston. 
1858 Prescott. Eber. 2 Hem York. 

Y. 
1914 Preston. Andrew W v_ amp- 
scott. 

1903 Preston. Howard Willis. Provi- 

dence. R. I. 

1911 Priest, Lyman F.. Gieaaoacble. 

1912 Proctor, Henry H.. Boston. 

1901 Proctor, Thomas E., Boston. 

1899 Putnam. George, Manchester. 

1900 Putnam, George J., Brookline. 

1886 Qninby, Hosea M., M.D., Wor- 



1889 Rand, Har North Cam- 

1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A., Cam- 
bridge. 



1903 Rawson. Herbert W.. Arling- 
ton. 

." . Franklin. 
HN Raymond, Walter, Pasadena, 
1. 

1891 Read. Charles A.. Manchester. 

1902 Reardon, Edmund. Cambridge. 

1892 Reardon, John B., Boston. 

- RenT, William, Forest Hills. 
1905 Remick. Frank W.. West New- 
ton. 
1889 Rice.. George C. Worcester. 
Tilham P., Chelsea. 
Richards, John J., Brookline. 

1899 Richardson. Mrs. F. L. W.. 

Charles River Village. 
1912 Richardson. H. H., Brookline. 
1918 Richardson, William K Na- 

hant 

1900 Richardson, Dr. William L., 

Boston. 

1905 Riggs, William Allan, Auburn- 
dale. 

1917 Riley. Charles E.. Newton. 

1886 Ripley. Charles. Dorchester. 

1903 Robb. RusselL Concord. 
1909 Re liss Anna B., Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Robinson, Alfred E.. Lexing- 

ton. 
1871 Robinson, John, Salem. 
1911 Rogers. Dexter ML, Allston. 
1914 R-ogers, Dudley P.. Danvers. 

1899 Rogers. Mrs. Jacob C Pea- 

bo: 

1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant. 

1910 Ross. Harold S.. Hinglmm. 
1895 Rothwell, James E., Brook- 
line. 

1899 Roy, David Frank, Marion. 
Ruddick, William H., M. D., 

South Boston. 
Rueter. Mrs. C. J., Jamaica 
Plain. 
"5 Russell, George, Woburn. 

1900 Russell. James 8., Milton. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



169 



1914 Russell, Mrs. Robert S., Boston. 
1919 Ryder, Charles W., Newton- 

ville. 

1893 Salisbury, William C. G., Brook- 
line. 

1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S., 

Milton. 

1912 Saltonstall, John L., Beverly. 

1912 Saltonstall, Mrs. John L., Bev- 
erly. 

1899 Saltonstall, Richard M., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Boston. 
1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brook- 
line. 

1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague, Jr., 
Cedarhurst, N. Y. 

1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W., Wel- 

lesley. 

1896 Scorgie, James C, Cambridge. 

1864 Scott, Charles, Newton. 
1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Boston. 
1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F., Boston. 
1914 Sears, Horace S., Weston. 
1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery, 

Boston. 

1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C, 

Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C, 
Boston. 

1899 Shaw, Francis, Wayland. 
1914 Shaw, Henry S., Milton. 

1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Welles- 
ley. 

1901 Shea, James B., Jamaica Plain. 

1906 Sherman, J. P. R., Newton. 

1865 Shorey, John L., Lynn. 
1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere. 
1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Rochelle. 

N. Y. 
1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G., 

Needham. 
1917 Silsbee, Miss Katharine E., 

Boston. 



1899 Sleeper, Henry Davi3, Boston. 
1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mohonk, 
N. Y. 

1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 
1872 Smith, Edward N., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

1919 Smith, Ernest E., Boston. 
1911 Smith, John L., Swampscott. 
1874 Snow, Eugene A., Cambridge. 
1899 Sohier, Col. William D., Bev- 
erly. 

1918 Spalding, Miss Dora N., Boston. 
1908 Spaulding, John T., Prides 

Crossing. 
1908 Spaulding, William S., Prides 

Crossing. 
1897 Sprague, Isaac, Wellesley Hills. 
1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 
1893 Stearns, Frank W., Newton. 
1896 Stedman, Henry R., M. D., 

Brookline. 
1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel, North 

Andover. 

1919 Stewart, George F., Waltham. 
1918 Stimpson, Harry F., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton. 

1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston. 
1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., South 

Dartmouth. 

1914 Stone, Galen L., Brookline. 

1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am- 
herst. 

1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Watertown. 

1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton. 

1917 Storey, Moorfield, Boston. 
1905 Storrow, James J., Boston. 

1918 Stranger, David C, West New- 

bury. 

1905 Stratton, Charles E., Boston. 

1906 Strout, Charles 8., Biddeford, 

Me. 
1914 BtUlgis, Mi- Evelyn R., Man- 
chester. 

1902 Sturgis, Richard Clipston, Bos- 

ton. 



170 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1916 Sturtevant, Miss Grace, Wel- 

lesley Farms. 
1910 Sullivan, Martin, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1912 Swan, Charles H., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1891 Sweet, Everell F., Maiden. 

1916 Swett, Raymond W., Saxon- 

ville. 
1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Han- 
over. 

1899 Taylor, Charles H., Boston. 

1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr., 

Columbia, S. C. 

1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W., 

Hyde Park. 

1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B., 

Roxbury. 

1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Bar Har- 

bor, Me. 

1898 Thatcher, William, Brookline. 
1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South 

Lancaster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Eugene V. R., 

South Lancaster. 

1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston. 

1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan- 
caster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South 
Lancaster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, Lan- 
caster. 

1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owosso, 
Mich. 

1899 Thomas, W. B., Manchester. 

1910 Thurlow, George C, West 
Newbury. 

1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H., West 

Newbury. 

1874 Tolman, Miss Harriet S., Bos- 
ton. 

1896 Toppan, Roland W. ; Newbury- 
port. 

1899 Tower, Miss Ellen May, Lex- 
ington. 



1901 Tower, Mrs. Helen M., Cam- 
bridge. 
1914 Towle, L. D., Newton. 

1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glencove, 

L. L, N. Y. 
1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford. 
1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell, 

Stoughton. 
1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston. 
1919 Tyndall, David, Brockton. 

1910 Underwood, Henry O., Bel- 
mont. 
1901 Underwood, Loring, Belmont. 

1917 Van Brunt, Mrs. Agnes, Read- 
ville. 

1919 Vander Voet, Christian, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1873 Vander-Woerd, Charles, Wal- 
tham. 

1899 Vaughan, William Warren, Bos- 
ton. 

1884 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer- 
ville. 

1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Wellesley 

Hills. 
1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D., 

Cambridge. 

1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1896 Walsh, Michael H., Woods 

Hole. 

1901 Waltham, George C, Dorches- 

ter. 
1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wakefield. 

1902 Warburton, Chatterton, Fall 

River. 
1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis, Haver- 
hill. 

1894 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 
1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston. 
1884 Watson, Thomas A., East 

Braintree. 
1914 Watters, W. F., Boston. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



171 



1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1914 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston. 

1907 Webster, George H., Haver- 
hill. 

1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 
1905 Webster, Laurence J., Holder- 

ness, N. H. 

1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray, Marion. 

1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorchester. 

1914 Weld, Mrs. Charles G., Brook- 
line. 

1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston. 

1899 Weld, Gen. Stephen M., Ware- 
ham. 

1914 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M., Ware- 
ham. 

1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W., 
Boston. 

1917 Wellington, William H., Bos- 
ton. 

1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon- 
set. 

1919 Wheeler, Everett P., Rockland. 

1889 Wheeler, James, Natick. 

1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord. 
1919 Whitcomb, Myron L., Haver- 
hill. 

1865 Whitcomb, William B., Med- 
ford. 

1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 White, George R., Boston. 

1909 White, Harry K., Milton. 

1917 Whitchouse, Mrs. Francis M., 
Manchester. 

1905 Whitman, William, Brookline. 

1894 Whitney, Arthur E., Winches- 
ter. 

1894 Whitney, Ellerton P., Milton. 

1899 Whitney, Henry M., Cohasset. 



1917 Whittemore, Charles, Cam- 
bridge. 

1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Milton. 

1899 Wigglesworth, George, Milton. 

1863 Wilbur, George B., Boston. 

1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., Canton. 

1881 Wilder, Edward Baker, Dor- 
chester. 

1899 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin, 
Roxbury. 

1905 Williams, George Percy, Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Williams, John Davis, Bos- 

ton. 

1905 Williams, Mrs. J. Bertram, 
Cambridge. 

1905 Williams, Mrs. Moses, Brook- 
line. 

1911 Williams, Ralph B., Dover. 

1915 Wilson, E. H., Jamaica Plain. 

1914 Wilson, Fred A., Nahant. 

1919 Wilson, James A., Lexington. 

1881 Wilson, William Power, Boston. 

1917 Winslow, Arthur, Boston. 

1905 Winsor, Robert, Weston. 

1906 Winter, Herman L., Portland, 

Me. 
1914 Winthrop, Grenville L., Lenox. 
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert, New 

York, N. Y. 
1914 Winthrop, Mrs. Robert C, Jr., 

Boston. 
1870 Wood, William K.. Franklin. 
1905 Woodberry, Miss E. Grrtru le, 

Cambridge. 

1905 Woodbury, John, Canton. 

1906 Woodward, Mrs. Samuel Bay- 

ard, Worcester. 
1917 Wright, George B., Water! 
1919 Wyman, Walton <* . Worth 

Ahin^ton. 

1900 Wyman, Windsor EL, North 

Abington. 



172 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



1913 Adams, Charles F., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1919 Alexander, J. K., East Bridge- 
water. 

1896 Anderson, George M., Milton. 

1912 Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes, 

Wellesley Hills. 
1911 Bacon. Augustus, Roxbury. 

1915 Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut 

Hill 
1918 Barnes, B.owland H., Newton 

Highlands. 
1898 Barr, John, South Natick. 

1916 Barron, Leonard, Garden City, 

N. ! 

1917 Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Boston. 
1917 Blodgett, Mrs. John, Beach 

Bluff. 
1917 Bogholt, Christian M., New- 
port, R. I. 

1901 Bradley, Miss Abby A., Hing- 

ham. 

1913 Bradley, Miss Julia H., Rox- 

bury. 
1873 Breck, Charles H., Newton. 

1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton. 

1909 Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Milton. 

1914 Brown, F. Howard, Marlboro. 

1916 Brown, Mrs. G. Winthrop, 

Chestnut Hill. 

1914 Campbell, Ernest W., Wolias- 
ton. 

1910 Camus, Emil, Boston. 

1917 Carlquist, Sigurd W., Lenox. 
1904 Chandler, Alfred D., Brookline. 

1918 Chick, Isaac W., Boston. 
1917 Child, H. Walter, Boston. 
1910 Churchill, Charles E.,Rockland. 

1919 Clark, William Edwin, Sharon. 



1918 Clarke. Hermann F.. Brookline. 

1918 Cogger, Thomas, Melrose. 

1914 Colt, James D., Chestnut Hill. 
1907 Colt, Mrs. James D., Chestnut 

Hill. 

1919 Conant, Miss Margaret W., 

West Medford. 

1917 Conant, Mrs. William C, Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Boston. 

1915 Copson, William A., Roslindale. 
1914 Crocker, Mrs. George Glover, 

Boston. 

1914 Crocker, Joseph Ballard, Chat- 
ham. 

1914 Crompton, Miss Mary A., 
Worcester. 

1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 

1917 Curtis, Allen, Boston. 

1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 

1914 Cushing, Mrs. Harvey, Brook- 
line. 

1912 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton. 

1910 Dahl, Frederick William, Rox- 

bury. 

1917 Dalton, Philip S., Milton. 
1889 Davis, Frederick S., West Rox- 

bury. 

1911 Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn. 

1918 Donald, James, Wellesley. 
1897 Dorr, George B., Bar Harbor, 

Me. 

1919 Emery, Frederick L., Lexing- 

ton. 

1916 Estabrooks, Dr. John W., Wol- 

laston. 

1902 Farlow, Mrs. William G., Cam- 
bridge. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



173 



1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone- 
ham. 

1919 Farrington, Edward G., Wey- 
mouth Heights. 

1917 Fiske, David L., Grafton. 

1901 Fiske, Harry E., Wollaston. 
1894 Fitzgerald, Desmond, Brook- 
line. 

1917 Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn. 
1903 Freeman, Miss Harriet E., 

Boston. 
1919 French, C. H., Dorchester. 

1912 Gage, L. Merton, Groton. 
1919 Golby, Walter H., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1912 Goodwin, Mrs. Daniel, East 

Greenwich, R. I. 
1917 Gordon, George, Beverly. 
1917 Graton, Louis, Whitman. 
1900 Grey, Robert Melrose, Belmont, 

Cuba. 
1897 Grey, Thomas J., Chelsea. 

1919 Hall, Joseph B., Cambridge. 

1908 Hamilton, Mrs. George Lang- 
ford, Magnolia. 

1912 Hardy, John H., Jr., Little- 
ton. 

1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. 

1917 Hathaway, Walter D., New 

Bedford. 

1918 Hayes, Herbert W., Waban. 
1910 Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ips- 
wich. 

1918 Hecht, Prof. August G., Am- 
herst. 

1891 Heustis, Warren H., Belmont. 

1916 Hibbard, Miss Ann, West Rox- 
bury. 

1914 Higginson, Mrs. Alexander H., 
Manchester. 

1902 Hildreth, Miss Ella F., West- 

ford. 
1902 Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston. 
1884 Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 



1912 Hollingsworth, Mrs. Sumner, 

Boston. 

1913 Holmes, Eber, Montrose. 
1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement S., 

Chestnut Hill. 
1917 Howard, W. D., Milford. 

1900 Howden, Thomas, Hudson. 
1917 Howe, Henry S., Brookline. 

1902 Hubbard, Allen, Newton Centre. 
1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brook- 
line. 

1913 Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox. 

1916 Jenks, Albert R., Newtonville. 

1903 Johnston, Robert, Lexington. 

1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem. 
1898 Kennard, Frederic H., Newton 

Centre. 
1912 Kirkegaard, John, Bedford. 

1889 Lancaster, Mrs. E. M., Rox- 
bury. 

1914 Leach, C. Arthur, South Hamil- 

ton. 
1914 Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1917 Leonard, John E., Wellesley. 

1904 Leuthy, A., Roslindale. 

1902 Lewis, E. L., Taunton. 

1896 Lincoln, Miss Agnes W., Mcd- 
ford. 

1901 Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Boston. 
1896 Loring, William C, Beverly. 

1903 Lumsden, David, Ithaca, N. Y. 

1912 McCarthy, Nicholas F., South 
Boston. 

1904 MncMulkin, Edward. Boston. 
1S90 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil- 
mington. 

1917 Header, H. E., Dover, N. H. 

1919 Millett, Charles H., Maiden. 
1917 Mixter, Dr. Samuel J., Boa- 
ton. 
I'M 1 Morse, Frank E., Aulmrndalc. 



174 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1919 Morse, Miss Madeline K., 

Wollaston. 
1913 Murray, Peter, Manomet. 

1916 Nehrling, Prof. Arno H., Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. 

1895 Nicholson, William, Framing- 
ham. 

1904 Nicol, James, Quincy. 

1903 Nixon, J. Arthur, Taunton. 

1913 O'Brien, Mrs. Edward F., 

Brookline. 

1915 Parker, A. S., Stoneham. 

1914 Parker, Miss Charlotte E., 

Ipswich. 

1906 Parker, Eliab, Roxbury. 

1909 Parker, W. Prentiss, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

1908 Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman, 
Readville. 

1914 Pembroke, A. A., Beverly. 

1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brookline. 

1902 Pritchard, John, Bedford Hills, 
N.Y. 

1912 Proctor,Dr. FrancisI.,Wellesley. 
1883 Purdie, George A., Wellesley 

Hills. 

1913 Putnam, Frank P., North 

Tewksbury. 

1906 Rane, Prof. F. W., Waban. 
1897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 
1912 Reed, H. B., Auburndale. 

1914 Rees, Ralph W., Ithaca, N. Y. 
1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G., Dorchester. 
1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean 

Park, Maine. 

1900 Robb, Peter B., Whitinsville. 

1893 Robinson, Walter A., Arling- 
ton. 

1917 Rooney, John P., New Bedford. 

1915 Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston. 
1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, Newton- 

ville. 



1903 Ross, Walter D., Worcester. 

1909 Russell, Charles F., Castine, 

Maine. 

1910 Rust, William C, Brookline. 
1918 Rutherford, William D. F., 

Norfolk. 

1918 Ryder, Robert L., Lexington. 

1907 Sanborn, Edward W., Boston. 
1897 Sander, Charles J., Brookline. 
1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 
1896 Searles, E. F., Methuen. 
1910 Sears, Prof. F. C, Amherst. 
1907 Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain. 
1886 Sharpies, Stephen P., Cam- 
bridge. 
1907 Sim, William, Cliftondale. 
1915 Slamin, John, Wellesley. 

1910 Smith, D. Roy, Boston. 

1914 Smith, George N., Wellesley 
Hills. 

1914 Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S., 
Springfield Center, N. Y. 

1914 Sprague, George H., Hamilton. 

1917 Stephen, A. L., Waban. 

1914 Stevenson, Robert H., Read- 
ville. 

1914 Storey, Mrs. Richard C, Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Sturgis, Miss Lucy Codman, 
Boston. 

1904 Symmes, Samuel S., Winches- 
ter. 

1919 Tenney, Albert B., Lexington. 
1914 Thayer, John E., Jr., Lancas- 
ter. 

1919 Thommen, Gustave, Somer- 

ville. 
1919 Tillinghast, Joseph J., Hyde 

Park. 
1909 Tracy, B. Hammond, Wenham. 
1913 Tuckerman, Bayard, Ipswich. 

1911 Ufford, Charles A., Dorchester. 



. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



175 



1S81 Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

1915 Wadsworth, Ralph E., North- 
boro. 

1917 Warren, Miss Cornelia, Wal- 
tham. 

1914 Washburn, Paul, Boston. 

1914 Waterer, Anthony, 3d, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

1914 Waterer, Hosea, Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
18S9 Welch, Patrick, Dorchester. 

1915 Wetterlow, Eric H., Manches- 

ter. 
1909 Wheeler, George F., Concord. 



1919 Wheeler, Harry A., Lexington. 

1897 Wheeler, Henry A., Newton- 
ville. 

1917 White, Mrs. Joseph H., Brook- 
line. 

1901 Wilder, Miss Grace S., Dor- 
chester. 

1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Newton- 
ville. 

1913 Williams, Mrs. Emile F., Cam- 
bridge. 

1919 Williams, Henry M., Plaistow, 
N. H. 

1889 Winter, William C, Mansfield. 



J